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Suivi des services écosystémiques dans un observatoire de caféiers agroforestiers. Applications pour la filière du café

Olivier Roupsard 1, 2 Clementine Allinne 3, 2 Karel van den Meersche 1, 2 Philippe Vaast 1, 2 Bruno Rapidel 4, 2 Jacques Avelino 5, 6 Christophe Jourdan 1, 2 Guerric Le Maire 1, 2 Jean-Marc Bonnefond 7 Jean-Michel Harmand 1, 2 Jean Dauzat 8, 6 Alain Albrecht 1 Tiphaine Chevallier 1 Bernard Barthès 1 Anne Clément-Vidal 9, 6 Federico Gomez Delgado 1 Fabien Charbonnier 1 Laura Benegas 10 Kristen Welsh 11 Rintaro Kinoshita 12 Rémi Vezy 8, 6 Junior Pastor Pérez-Molina 10 Simon Taugourdeau 13, 14 Elsa Defrenet 15 Jérome Nespoulous 8 Florian Rançon 16 Florian Guidat Aurelie Cambou 1 Maxime Soma 17 Carolin Mages 18 Florian Schnabel 10 Ivan Prieto 19 Delphine Picart 20 Maxime Duthoit 1, 2 Alain Rocheteau 1 Frédéric C. Do 1 Elias de Melo Virginio Filho 10 Rachida Moussa 16 Yves Le Bissonnais 21 Christian Valentin 22 Ricardo Sánchez-Murillo 23 Catherine Roumet 24 Alexia Stokes 8 Lee A. Vierling 11 Jan U.H. Eitel 11 Erwin Dreyer 25 Laurent Saint-André 26 Anders Malmer 27 Denis Loustau 7 Marney E. Isaac 28 Adam R. Martin 28 Anders Prieme 18 Bo Elberling 18 Mikael Madsen 18 Alfonso Robelo 29 Diego Robelo 29 Carlos Borgonovo 29 Peter Lehner 29 Guillermo Ramírez 29 Manuel Jara 29 R. Acuna Vargas 29 Alejandra Barquero 29 Carlos Fonseca 30 Frédéric Gay 1, 2 
Abstract : Eight years of studying coffee ecophysiology and monitoring ecosystem services (ES) in a large coffee farm in Costa Rica revealed several practical recommendations for farmers and policy makers. The cropping system studied within our collaborative observatory (Coffee-Flux) corresponds to a coffee-based agroforestry system (AFS) under the shade of large trees of Erythrina poeppigiana (16 % of canopy cover). A lot of ES and disservices depend on local soil properties (here Andisols), especially erosion/infiltration, water/carbon and nutrient storage capacity. Therefore, for ES assessment, the type of soil is crucial. An adequate density of shade trees (rather low here) reduced the severity of leaf diseases with the prospect of reducing pesticide-fungicide use. A simple inventory of the basal area at collar of the coffee plants allowed estimating the belowground biomass and the average age of the plantation, to judge of its market value and to decide when to replace it. Coffee farms are probably much closer to C neutrality than predicted by the current C-Neutral protocol, which only considers shade trees. More comprehensive assessments, including trees, coffee, litter, soil, and roots in the C balance of the AFS are proposed. Shade trees offer many ES if they are adequately managed in the local context. As compared to full sun conditions, shade trees may (i) reduce laminar erosion by a factor of 2, (ii) increase N2 fixation and the % of N recycled into the system, thus reducing fertilizer requirements, (iii) reduce the severity of leaf diseases, (iv) increase C sequestration, (v) improve the microclimate, and (vi) substantially reduce the effects of climate change. In our case study, no negative effect on coffee yield was found.
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Olivier Roupsard, Clementine Allinne, Karel van den Meersche, Philippe Vaast, Bruno Rapidel, et al.. Suivi des services écosystémiques dans un observatoire de caféiers agroforestiers. Applications pour la filière du café. Agroforesterie et services écosystémiques en zone tropicale : Recherche de compromis entre services d'approvisionnement et autres services, Editions Quae, 254 p., 2019, Update Sciences and Technologies, 978-2-7592-3059-4. ⟨hal-02789592⟩

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