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Analyse comparative de différents systèmes en viticulture

Abstract : The French viticulture is a high consumer of pesticides, as grapevine is sensitive to many pests and diseases. Yet the intensity of pesticide use varies a lot among and within regions. The aim of the present study was to identify varioux classes of dependency to the intensive use of pesticides and to charaterize their productive, environmental and economic performances.four classes were defined : (0) systematic crop protection, (1) non-systematic protection, (2) integrated production (adoption of alternatives to pesticides), (3) organic farming. Each class presented a strong variation of the number of pesticide applications, which resulted in identifying classes 1+, 2+ and 3+ charaterized by a management of pesticide applications at field rather than at farm scale. The performances of classes 0, 1,2 and 3 were evaluated from a survey carried out by the French Ministry of Agriculture on the management plan of more than 5000 vineyards throughout the country in 2006. information was missing for calculating agricultural indicators : there was confusion between the reference yield and the actual field yield, and there was no information about product quality. A composite indicator of canopy control was designed to evaluate the intensity of prophylactid practices. Some costs could be evaluated (soil tillage, pesticide applications, pesticides except herbicides), others not (labour). Gross margin could not be calculated, due to missing costs and uncertainty about the price of products. Lastly, the TFI (treatment frequency index) could be calculated for various types of products. The indicators were calculated for 10 wine-producing regions presenting contrasted climates and strategies of production. Groups of regions could be distinguished by the relative weight of the classes of dependency to pesticides, without systematic correlation with climate or pest pressure. On average, TFI decreased from class 0 to classes 2 and 3. yield and costs also differed, which revealed differences in farm management behind the differences in practices of grapevine protection ; all indicators varied a lot within each lcass. Long term experiments (20001-2007) carried out at Bordeaux Inra centre made it possible to quantify variations of indicators related to pesticide management at farm or field scale and to observe strong inter-annual variatiosn in performances and differences among classes. From the caracterization of classes of dependency to pesticides, the potential consequences of changes in practices of grapevine protection could be evaluated. Two trajectories led to a significant reduction of TFI : eigher a migration of classes 0, 1, 2 and 3 towards classes 1+, 2+ and 3+, or a migration of classes 0 and 1 to classes 2 or 3. the incomplete information needed to calculate the agronomic and economic indicators made difficult the assessment of the likelihood of adoption of these changes of practices. To this end, the analysis should be continued at farm scale
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Submitted on : Saturday, June 6, 2020 - 11:02:34 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, March 23, 2022 - 12:08:40 PM

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  • HAL Id : hal-02824809, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 44917

Citation

Delphine Meziere, Christian Gary, Jean Marc Barbier, Laurent Bernos, Christophe Clément, et al.. Analyse comparative de différents systèmes en viticulture. Ecophyto R&D, Vers des systèmes de cultures économes en produits phytosanitaires. Volet 1, Tome III, 2009. ⟨hal-02824809⟩

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