Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
Journal articles

Secretory RING finger proteins function as effectors in a grapevine galling insect

Abstract : Background: All eukaryotes share a conserved network of processes regulated by the proteasome and fundamental to growth, development, or perception of the environment, leading to complex but often predictable responses to stress. As a specialized component of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), the RING finger domain mediates protein-protein interactions and displays considerable versatility in regulating many physiological processes in plants. Many pathogenic organisms co-opt the UPS through RING-type E3 ligases, but little is known about how insects modify these integral networks to generate novel plant phenotypes. Results: Using a combination of transcriptome sequencing and genome annotation of a grapevine galling species, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, we identified 138 putatively secretory protein RING-type (SPRINGs) E3 ligases that showed structure and evolutionary signatures of genes under rapid evolution. Moreover, the majority of the SPRINGs were more expressed in the feeding stage than the non-feeding egg stage, in contrast to the non-secretory RING genes. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the SPRINGs formed clusters, likely resulting from species-specific gene duplication and conforming to features of arthropod host-manipulating (effector) genes. To test the hypothesis that these SPRINGs evolved to manipulate cellular processes within the plant host, we examined SPRING interactions with grapevine proteins using the yeast two-hybrid assay. An insect SPRING interacted with two plant proteins, a cellulose synthase, CSLD5, and a ribosomal protein, RPS4B suggesting secretion reprograms host immune signaling, cell division, and stress response in favor of the insect. Plant UPS gene expression during gall development linked numerous processes to novel organogenesis. Conclusions: Taken together, D. vitifoliae SPRINGs represent a novel gene expansion that evolved to interact with Vitis hosts. Thus, a pattern is emerging for gall forming insects to manipulate plant development through UPS targeting.
Document type :
Journal articles
Complete list of metadata
Contributor : Michel Leroux <>
Submitted on : Thursday, August 20, 2020 - 8:10:07 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:27:29 PM


Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Links full text




Chaoyang Zhao, Claude Rispe, Paul Nabity. Secretory RING finger proteins function as effectors in a grapevine galling insect. BMC Genomics, 2019, 20 (1), pp.923. ⟨10.1186/s12864-019-6313-x⟩. ⟨hal-02917884⟩



Record views