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How to implement biodiversity-based agriculture to enhance ecosystem services: a review

Abstract : Intensive agriculture has led to several drawbacks such as biodiversity loss, climate change, erosion, and pollution of air and water. A potential solution is to implement management practices that increase the level of provision of ecosystem services such as soil fertility and biological regulation. There is a lot of literature on the principles of agroecology. However, there is a gap of knowledge between agroecological principles and practical applications. Therefore , we review here agroecological and management sciences to identify two facts that explain the lack of practical applications: (1) the occurrence of high uncertainties about relations between agricultural practices, ecological processes, and ecosystem services, and (2) the site-specific character of agroecological practices required to deliver expected ecosystem services. We also show that an adaptive-management approach, focusing on planning and monitoring, can serve as a framework for developing and implementing learning tools tailored for biodiversity-based agriculture. Among the current learning tools developed by researchers, we identify two main types of emergent support tools likely to help design diversified farming systems and landscapes: (1) knowledge bases containing scientific supports and experiential knowledge and (2) model-based games. These tools have to be coupled with well-tailored field or management indicators that allow monitoring effects of practices on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Finally, we propose a research agenda that requires bringing together contributions from agricultural, ecological, management, and knowledge management sciences, and asserts that researchers have to take the position of "integration and implementation sciences."
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https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02935682
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Submitted on : Thursday, September 10, 2020 - 3:33:02 PM
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Michel Duru, Olivier Therond, Guillaume Martin, Roger Martin-Clouaire, Marie-Angélina Magne, et al.. How to implement biodiversity-based agriculture to enhance ecosystem services: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, Springer Verlag/EDP Sciences/INRA, 2015, 35 (4), pp.1259-1281. ⟨10.1007/s13593-015-0306-1⟩. ⟨hal-02935682⟩

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