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Limited Cross-Protection Provided by Prior Infection Contributes to High Prevalence of Influenza D Viruses in Cattle

Abstract : Since its detection in swine, influenza D virus (IDV) has been shown to be present in multiple animal hosts, and bovines have been identified as its natural reservoir. However, it remains unclear how IDVs emerge, evolve, spread, and maintain in bovine populations. Through multiple years of virological and serological surveillance in a single order-buyer cattle facility in Mississippi, we showed consistently high seroprevalence of IDVs in cattle and recovered a total of 32 IDV isolates from both healthy and sick animals, including those with antibodies against IDV. Genomic analyses of these isolates along with those isolated from other areas showed that active genetic reassortment occurred in IDV and that five reassortants were identified in the Mississippian facility. Two antigenic groups were identified through antigenic cartography analyses for these 32 isolates and representative IDVs from other areas. Remarkably, existing antibodies could not protect cattle from experimental reinfection with IDV. Additional phenotypic analyses demonstrated variations in growth dynamics and pathogenesis in mice between viruses independent of genomic constellation. In summary, this study suggests that, in addition to epidemiological factors, the ineffectiveness of preexisting immunity and cocirculation of a diverse viral genetic pool could facilitate its high prevalence in animal populations. IMPORTANCE Influenza D viruses (IDVs) are panzootic in multiple animal hosts, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Through multiple years of surveillance in the same order-buyer cattle facility, 32 IDV isolates were recovered from both healthy and sick animals, including those with evident antibodies against IDV. Active reassortment occurred in the cattle within this facility and in those across other areas, and multiple reassortants cocirculated in animals. These isolates are shown with a large extent of phenotypic diversity in replication efficiency and pathogenesis but little in antigenic properties. Animal experiments demonstrated that existing antibodies could not protect cattle from experimental reinfection with IDV. This study suggests that, in addition to epidemiological factors, limited protection from preex isting immunity against IDVs in cattle herds and cocirculation of a diverse viral genetic pool likely facilitate the high prevalence of IDVs in animal populations.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-03197205
Contributor : Christine Riou <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, April 13, 2021 - 4:00:36 PM
Last modification on : Friday, June 4, 2021 - 2:40:24 PM

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Xiu-Feng Wan, Lucas Ferguson, Justine Oliva, Adam Rubrum, Laura Eckard, et al.. Limited Cross-Protection Provided by Prior Infection Contributes to High Prevalence of Influenza D Viruses in Cattle. Journal of Virology, American Society for Microbiology, 2020, 94 (18), pp.e00240-20. ⟨10.1128/JVI.00240-20⟩. ⟨hal-03197205⟩

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