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Effects of High-Fat Diet at Two Energetic Levels on Fecal Microbiota, Colonic Barrier, and Metabolic Parameters in Dogs

Abstract : Increased consumption of energy-rich foods is a key factor in overweight, obesity, and associated metabolic disorders. This would be, at least in part, related to microbiota disturbance. In rodent models of obesity, microbiota disruption has been associated with alteration of the intestinal barrier, endotoxemia, inflammation grade, and insulin sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD), fed at two energetic levels, on microbiota, intestinal barrier, and inflammatory and metabolic parameters in dogs. A HFD (33% fat as fed, 4,830 kcal/kg) was given to 24 healthy Beagle dogs at 100% (HF-100;n= 8) and at 150% (HF-150;n= 16) of their maintenance energy requirements for 8 weeks. Analysis of similarity revealed a significant difference in gut microbiota beta-diversity following the diet compared to week 0 in both groups while alpha-diversity was lower only in the HF-150 group. Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was higher in the HF-150 group compared to the HF-100 group at weeks 2 and 8. A reduction in insulin sensitivity was observed over time in the HF150 group. Neither endotoxemia nor inflammation was observed in either group, did not find supporting data for the hypothesis that the microbiota is involved in the decline of insulin sensitivity through metabolic endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation. Colonic permeability was increased at week 4 in both groups and returned to initial levels at week 8, and was associated with modifications to the expression of genes involved in colonic barrier function. The increase in intestinal permeability may have been caused by the altered intestinal microbiota and increased expression of genes encoding tight junction proteins might indicate a compensatory mechanism to restore normal permeability. Although simultaneous changes to the microbiota, barrier permeability, inflammatory, and metabolic status have not been observed, such a causal link cannot be excluded in dogs overfed on a HFD. Further studies are necessary to better understand the link between HFD, intestinal microbiota and the host.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 26, 2021 - 9:40:45 AM
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Alex Moinard, Cyrielle Payen, Khadija Ouguerram, Agnès André, Juan Hernandez, et al.. Effects of High-Fat Diet at Two Energetic Levels on Fecal Microbiota, Colonic Barrier, and Metabolic Parameters in Dogs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, Frontiers Media, 2020, 7, ⟨10.3389/fvets.2020.566282⟩. ⟨hal-03235965⟩



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