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The art of adapting to extreme environments: The model system Pseudoalteromonas

Abstract : Extremophilic microbes have adapted to thrive in ecological niches characterized by harsh chemical/physical conditions such as, for example, very low/high temperature. Living organisms inhabiting these environments have developed peculiar mechanisms to cope with extreme conditions, in such a way that they mark the chemical-physical boundaries of life on Earth. Studying such mechanisms is stimulating from a basic research viewpoint and because of biotechnological applications. Pseudoalteromonas species are a group of marine gamma-proteobacteria frequently isolated from a range of extreme environments, including cold habitats and deep-sea sediments. Since deep-sea floors constitute almost 60% of the Earth's surface and cold temperatures represent the most common of the extreme conditions, the genus Pseudoalteromonas can be considered one of the most important model systems for studying microbial adaptation. Particularly, among all Pseudoalteromonas representatives, P. haloplanktis TAC125 has recently gained a central role. This bacterium was isolated from seawater sampled along the Antarctic ice-shell and is considered one of the model organisms of cold-adapted bacteria. It is capable of thriving in a wide temperature range and it has been suggested as an alternative host for the soluble overproduction of heterologous proteins, given its ability to rapidly multiply at low temperatures. In this review, we will present an overview of the recent advances in the characterization of Pseudoalteromonas strains and, more importantly, in the understanding of their evolutionary and chemical-physical strategies to face such a broad array of extreme conditions. A particular attention will be given to systems-biology approaches in the study of the above-mentioned topics, as genome-scale datasets (e.g. genomics, proteomics, phenomics) are beginning to expand for this group of organisms. In this context, a specific section dedicated to P. haloplanktis TAC125 will be presented to address the recent efforts in the elucidation of the metabolic rewiring of the organisms in its natural environment (Antarctica).
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Submitted on : Wednesday, June 9, 2021 - 10:49:16 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, June 10, 2021 - 3:48:26 AM

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Ermenegilda Parrilli, Pietro Tedesco, Marco Fondi, Maria Luisa Tutino, Angelina Lo Giudice, et al.. The art of adapting to extreme environments: The model system Pseudoalteromonas. Physics of Life Reviews, Elsevier, 2021, 36, pp.137-161. ⟨10.1016/j.plrev.2019.04.003⟩. ⟨hal-03254816⟩

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