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Imprints of Past Habitat Area Reduction on Extant Taxonomic, Functional, and Phylogenetic Composition

Abstract : Past environmental changes have shaped the evolutionary and ecological diversity of extant organisms. Specifically, climatic fluctuations have made environmental conditions alternatively common or rare over time. Accordingly, most taxa have undergone restriction of their distribution to local refugia during habitat contraction, from which they could expand when suitable habitat became more common. Assessing how past restrictions in refugia have shaped species distributions and genetic diversity has motivated much research in evolutionary biology and biogeography. But there is still lack of clear synthesis on whether and how the taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic composition of extant multispecies assemblages retains the imprint of past restriction in refugia. We devised an original eco-evolutionary model to investigate the temporal dynamics of a regional species pool inhabiting a given habitat today, and which have experienced habitat reduction in the past. The model includes three components: (i) a demographic component driving stochastic changes in population sizes and extinctions due to habitat availability, (ii) a mutation and speciation component representing how divergent genotypes emerge and define new species over time, and (iii) a trait evolution component representing how trait values have changed across descendants over time. We used this model to simulate dynamics of multispecies assemblages that occupied a restricted refugia in the past and could expand their distribution subsequently. We characterized the past restriction in refugia in terms of two parameters representing the ending time of past refugia, and the extent of habitat restriction in the refugia. We characterized extant patterns of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity depending on these parameters. We found that extant relative abundances reflect the lasting influence of more recent refugia on demographic dynamics, while phylogenetic composition reflects the influence of more ancient habitat change. Extant functional diversity depends on the interplay between diversification dynamics and trait evolution, offering new options to jointly infer current trait adaptation and past trait evolution dynamics.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 7, 2021 - 10:21:05 AM
Last modification on : Friday, July 9, 2021 - 4:25:14 AM

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Elizabeth Barthelemy, Claire Fortunel, Maxime Jaunatre, François Munoz. Imprints of Past Habitat Area Reduction on Extant Taxonomic, Functional, and Phylogenetic Composition. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, Frontiers Media S.A, 2021, 9, ⟨10.3389/fevo.2021.634413⟩. ⟨hal-03280157⟩

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