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Population pharmacokinetics and dosing simulations of amoxicillin in obese adults receiving co-amoxiclav

Abstract : Background Pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections are more frequent in obese patients and are most often treated by co-amoxiclav, using similar dosing regimens to those used for non-obese subjects. No data are available on amoxicillin pharmacokinetics among obese subjects receiving co-amoxiclav. Materials and methods Prospective, single-centre, open-label, non-randomized, crossover pharmacokinetic trial having enrolled obese otherwise healthy adult subjects. A first dose of co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin/clavulanate 1000/200 mg) was infused IV over 30 min, followed by a second dose (1000/125 mg) administered orally, separated by a washout period of ≥24 h. We assayed concentrations of amoxicillin by a validated ultra HPLC–tandem MS technique. We estimated population pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin by non-linear mixed-effect modelling using the SAEM algorithm developed by Monolix. Results Twenty-seven subjects were included in the IV study, with 24 included in the oral part of the study. Median body weight and BMI were 109.3 kg and 40.6 kg/m2, respectively. Amoxicillin pharmacokinetics were best described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. Mean values for clearance, central volume, intercompartmental clearance and peripheral volume were, respectively, 14.6 L/h, 9.0 L, 4.2 L/h and 6.4 L for amoxicillin. Oral bioavailability of amoxicillin was 79.7%. Amoxicillin Cmax after oral administration significantly reduced with weight (P = 0.013). Dosing simulations for amoxicillin predicted that most of the population will achieve the pharmacodynamic target of fT>MIC ≥40% with the regimen of co-amoxiclav 1000/200 mg (IV) or 1000/125 mg (oral) q8h for MICs titrated up to 0.5 mg/L (IV) and 1 mg/L (oral). Conclusions Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic goals for amoxicillin can be obtained in obese subjects.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-03299247
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Submitted on : Monday, July 26, 2021 - 11:44:49 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, September 2, 2021 - 2:36:41 PM

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Guillaume Mellon, K Hammas, C Burdet, X Duval, C Carette, et al.. Population pharmacokinetics and dosing simulations of amoxicillin in obese adults receiving co-amoxiclav. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020, 75 (12), pp.3611-3618. ⟨10.1093/jac/dkaa368⟩. ⟨hal-03299247⟩

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