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Relevance of Leukocytospermia and Semen Culture and Its True Place in Diagnosing and Treating Male Infertility

Rakesh Sharma 1 Sajal Gupta 1 Ashok Agarwal 1 Ralf Henkel 1, 2, 3 Renata Finelli 1 Neel Parekh 1 Ramadan Saleh 4 Mohamed Arafa 1, 5 Edmund Ko 6 Armand Zini 7 Nicholas Tadros 8 Rupin Shah 9 Rafael Ambar Haitham Elbardisi 5 Pallav Sengupta Marlon Martinez 10 Florence Boitrelle 11, 12 Mara Simopoulou 13 Paraskevi Vogiatzi Jaime Gosalvez 14 Parviz Kavoussi Hussein Kandil Ayad Palani Marcelo Rodriguez Peña Osvaldo Rajmil 15 Gian Maria Busetto Christina Anagnostopoulou Sava Micic Marco Alves 16 Lucia Rocco 17 Taymour Mostafa 18 Juan Alvarez 19 Sunil Jindal Hassan Sallam 20 Israel Maldonado Rosas Sheena E.M. Lewis Sami Alsaid Mesut Altan 21 Hyun Jun Park 22 Jonathan Ramsay 23 Sijo Parekattil 24 Marjan Sabbaghian 25 Kelton Tremellen 26 Kareim Khalafalla 27 Damayanthi Durairajanayagam 28 Giovanni Colpi 29
Abstract : The current WHO 2010 manual for human semen analysis defines leukocytospermia as the presence of peroxidase-positive leukocytes at a concentration >1×106/mL of semen. Granular leukocytes when activated are capable of generating high levels of reactive oxygen species in semen resulting in oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been correlated with poor sperm quality, increased level of sperm DNA fragmentation and low fertility potential. The presence of leukocytes and pathogens in the semen may be a sign of infection and/or localized inflammatory response in the male genital tract and the accessory glands. Common uro-pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Escherichia coli can cause epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, or prostatitis. The relationship between leukocytospermia and infection is unclear. Therefore, we describe the pathogens responsible for male genital tract infections and their association with leukocytospermia. The review also examines the diagnostic tests available to identify seminal leukocytes. The role of leukocytospermia in male infertility and its management is also discussed.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, August 24, 2021 - 11:00:24 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, September 9, 2021 - 3:08:19 PM

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Rakesh Sharma, Sajal Gupta, Ashok Agarwal, Ralf Henkel, Renata Finelli, et al.. Relevance of Leukocytospermia and Semen Culture and Its True Place in Diagnosing and Treating Male Infertility. The World Journal of Men's Health, 2021, 39, ⟨10.5534/WJMH.210063⟩. ⟨hal-03324952⟩

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