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Depletion of TAX1BP1 amplifies innate immune responses during respiratory syncytial virus infection

Abstract : Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of acute respiratory infections in young children, and also has a major impact on the elderly and immunocompromised people. In the absence of a vaccine or efficient treatment, a better understanding of RSV interactions with the host antiviral response during infection is needed. Previous studies revealed that cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs) where viral replication and transcription occur could play a major role in the control of innate immunity during infection by recruiting cellular proteins involved in the host antiviral response. We recently showed that the morphogenesis of IBs relies on a liquid-liquid phase separation mechanism depending on the interaction between viral nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P). These scaffold proteins are expected to play a central role in the recruitment of cellular proteins to IBs. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using RSV N protein as a bait, and identified the cellular protein TAX1BP1 as a potential partner of this viral protein. This interaction was validated by pulldown and immunoprecipitation assays. We showed that TAX1BP1 suppression has only a limited impact on RSV infection in cell cultures. However, RSV replication is decreased in TAX1BP1-deficient mice (TAX1BP1 KO ), whereas the production of inflammatory and antiviral cytokines is enhanced. In vitro infection of wild-type or TAX1BP1 KO alveolar macrophages confirmed that the innate immune response to RSV infection is enhanced in the absence of TAX1BP1. Altogether, our results suggest that RSV could hijack TAX1BP1 to restrain the host immune response during infection. Importance Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants, still remains a medical problem in the absence of vaccine or efficient treatment. This virus is also recognized as a main pathogen in the elderly and immunocompromised people, and the occurrence of co-infections (with other respiratory viruses and bacteria) amplifies the risks of developing respiratory distress. In this context, a better understanding of the pathogenesis associated to viral respiratory infections, which depends on both viral replication and the host immune response, is needed. The present study reveals that the cellular protein TAX1BP1, which interacts with the RSV nucleoprotein N, participates in the control of the innate immune response during RSV infection, suggesting that N-TAX1BP1 interaction represents a new target for the development of antivirals.
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Contributor : Delphyne Descamps Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Monday, September 13, 2021 - 7:12:23 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, September 15, 2021 - 3:30:10 AM

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Delphyne Descamps, Andressa Peres de Oliveira, Lorène Gonnin, Sarah Madrières, Jenna Fix, et al.. Depletion of TAX1BP1 amplifies innate immune responses during respiratory syncytial virus infection. Journal of Virology, American Society for Microbiology, In press, ⟨10.1128/JVI.00912-21⟩. ⟨hal-03341825⟩



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