The Impact of Obesity, Adipose Tissue, and Tumor Microenvironment on Macrophage Polarization and Metastasis - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Biology Year : 2022

The Impact of Obesity, Adipose Tissue, and Tumor Microenvironment on Macrophage Polarization and Metastasis

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Abstract

Tumor metastasis is a major cause of death in cancer patients. It involves not only the intrinsic alterations within tumor cells, but also crosstalk between these cells and components of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Tumorigenesis is a complex and dynamic process, involving the following three main stages: initiation, progression, and metastasis. The transition between these stages depends on the changes within the extracellular matrix (ECM), in which tumor and stromal cells reside. This matrix, under the effect of growth factors, cytokines, and adipokines, can be morphologically altered, degraded, or reorganized. Many cancers evolve to form an immunosuppressive TME locally and create a pre-metastatic niche in other tissue sites. TME and pre-metastatic niches include myofibroblasts, immuno-inflammatory cells (macrophages), adipocytes, blood, and lymphatic vascular networks. Several studies have highlighted the adipocyte-macrophage interaction as a key driver of cancer progression and dissemination. The following two main classes of macrophages are distinguished: M1 (pro-inflammatory/anti-tumor) and M2 (anti-inflammatory/pro-tumor). These cells exhibit distinct microenvironment-dependent phenotypes that can promote or inhibit metastasis. On the other hand, obesity in cancer patients has been linked to a poor prognosis. In this regard, tumor-associated adipocytes modulate TME through the secretion of inflammatory mediators, which modulate and recruit tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). Hereby, this review describes the cellular and molecular mechanisms that link inflammation, obesity, and cancer. It provides a comprehensive overview of adipocytes and macrophages in the ECM as they control cancer initiation, progression, and invasion. In addition, it addresses the mechanisms of tumor anchoring and recruitment for M1, M2, and TAM macrophages, specifically highlighting their origin, classification, polarization, and regulatory networks, as well as their roles in the regulation of angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and immunosuppression, specifically highlighting the role of adipocytes in this process.
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hal-03749381 , version 1 (10-08-2022)

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Attribution - CC BY 4.0

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Ola Habanjar, Mona Diab-Assaf, Florence Caldefie-Chezet, Laetitia Delort. The Impact of Obesity, Adipose Tissue, and Tumor Microenvironment on Macrophage Polarization and Metastasis. Biology, 2022, 11 (2), pp.339. ⟨10.3390/biology11020339⟩. ⟨hal-03749381⟩
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