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Journal Articles (Review Article) Cahiers Agricultures Year : 2022

“Biocontrôle” in France: what are we talking about?

Le biocontrôle en France : de quoi parle-t-on ?

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Abstract

The use of synthetic chemical pesticides for crop protection has now clearly shown its limits: health risks, negative effects on the environment, ecological imbalances, loss of efficiency and high costs. Therefore, the goal of reducing the use of synthetic chemical pesticides in crop protection is now generally accepted by most professional and political actors. This paper focuses on the situation encountered in France, regarding the use of products of natural origin to manage populations and injuries of crop pests. In this field, the term “biocontrôle” has indeed appeared in France during the last decade; it is considered as a crop protection concept and it is presented as a solution to reduce the use of pesticides. This term “biocontrôle” is a French specificity; it does not have, to date, a single reference translation in English. This paper aims at providing an overview of what the term “biocontrôle” means in France. Behind an official definition, an examination of the definitions of “biocontrôle” in France shows significant terminological instability. The diversity of meanings of “biocontrôle” has led to varying interpretations by different French stakeholders. Furthermore, analysis of the use of the term “biocontrôle” in France over the last decade shows the growing interest of the general public, agricultural and agro-pharmaceutical professionals, policers and the scientific community. The increase in the use of the term “biocontrôle” has been observed in parallel with the decrease in the use of the French term “lutte biologique” (biological control or biocontrol in English), a recognized and stable concept for more than a century. Finally, this diversity of definitions of “biocontrôle” and the increase in the use of the term “biocontrôle” in France lead to issues in the field of crop protection that are discussed in this synthesis.
L'utilisation des pesticides chimiques de synthèse dans la protection des cultures a aujourd'hui clairement montré ses limites : risques sanitaires, effets négatifs sur l'environnement, déséquilibres écologiques, pertes d'efficacité et coûts élevés. C'est pourquoi la forte réduction de ces pesticides est maintenant un objectif généralement admis par la plupart des acteurs professionnels et politiques. En France, le biocontrôle est un concept de protection des cultures apparu lors de la dernière décennie et présenté comme une solution permettant de réduire l'utilisation de pesticides. La présente synthèse vise à dresser un état des lieux de ce que recouvre le terme de « biocontrôle » en France. Derrière une définition officielle, la revue des définitions du biocontrôle en France montre une instabilité terminologique significative. La diversité des acceptions du terme de « biocontrôle » est à l'origine d'interprétations variables selon les acteurs. Par ailleurs, l'analyse de l'utilisation du terme « biocontrôle » en France au cours de la dernière décennie montre l'intérêt grandissant du biocontrôle auprès du grand public, des professionnels du monde agricole et agropharmaceutique, des politiques et de la communauté scientifique. L'augmentation de l'usage de ce terme a été observée parallèlement à la diminution de l'usage du terme « lutte biologique », un concept reconnu et stable depuis plus d'un siècle. Enfin, cette diversité des définitions du biocontrôle et cette augmentation de l'utilisation du terme « biocontrôle » induisent des problématiques dans le domaine de la protection des cultures qui sont évoquées dans cette synthèse. Mots clés : biocontrôle / produits de biocontrôle / protection des cultures / terminologie / instabilité dénominative Abstract-"Biocontrôle" in France: what are we talking about? The use of synthetic chemical pesticides for crop protection has now clearly shown its limits: health risks, negative effects on the environment, ecological imbalances, loss of efficiency and high costs. Therefore, the goal of reducing the use of synthetic chemical pesticides in crop protection is now generally accepted by most professional and political actors. This paper focuses on the situation encountered in France, regarding the use of products of natural origin to manage populations and injuries of crop pests. In this field, the term "biocontrôle" has indeed appeared in France during the last decade; it is considered as a crop protection concept and it is presented as a solution to reduce the use of pesticides. This term "biocontrôle" is a French specificity; it does not have, to date, a single reference translation in English. This paper aims at providing an overview of what the term "biocontrôle" means in France. Behind an official definition, an examination of the definitions of "biocontrôle" in France shows significant terminological instability. The diversity of meanings of "biocontrôle" has led to varying interpretations by different French stakeholders. Furthermore, analysis of the use of the term "biocontrôle" in France over the last decade shows the growing interest of the general public, agricultural and agropharmaceutical professionals, policers and the scientific community. The increase in the use of the term "biocontrôle" has been observed in parallel with the decrease in the use of the French term "lutte biologique" (biological control or biocontrol in English), a recognized and stable concept for more than a century. Finally, this diversity of definitions of "biocontrôle" and the increase in the use of the term "biocontrôle" in France lead to issues in the field of crop protection that are discussed in this synthesis.
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hal-03752368 , version 1 (16-08-2022)

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Attribution - NonCommercial - CC BY 4.0

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Jean-Philippe Deguine, Hélène Ledouble. Le biocontrôle en France : de quoi parle-t-on ?. Cahiers Agricultures, 2022, 31, pp.19. ⟨10.1051/cagri/2022018⟩. ⟨hal-03752368⟩
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