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Investigation of the physicochemical and textural properties of an iron-rich 3D-printed hybrid food

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Abstract

Objectives: This study investigates the feasibility to formulate an iron-rich hybrid food product mixing vegetal and animal sources for iron deficient populations and its evolution over time to verify that it provides the necessary quantity and quality of iron. 3Dprinting is used here as a tool to personalize nutritional intake, texture and aesthetics of products while valorizing valuable animal by-products. The main objective of this project is to follow during 21 days the physico-chemical and texture kinetics of a product manufactured with such a process. This work is also a first approach to determine the influence of the product shape and the most suitable packaging method by highlighting its impact on the end product in relation to its oxidation state and its texture properties. Materials and Methods: The animal mixture was obtained by chopping raw pork liver (27.25% w/w) and raw poultry liver (70.25% w/w), then mixing with raspberry vinegar (2% w/w) and salt (0.5% w/w). To improve printability, the animal mixture was precooked at 50°C for 15 min. Concerning the vegetal mixture, coral lentils (approx. 86% w/w) were cooked for 15 min from boiling in unsalted water in the ratio of 1:5 (w/w) before being sieved and mixed with lupine flour (10% w/w), peanut oil (3% w/w), curry powder (0.4% w/w) and salt (0.4% w/w). Food matrices were 3D-printed using the Foodini extrusion-based 3D-printer (Natural Machines, Spain) with a 4 mm nozzle diameter. Two shapes were selected corresponding to various ratios of animal and vegetable mixtures: shape (C), a filled cookie (φ70 × 16 mm; 5 layers; 20:80) with the offal mixture hidden inside and shape (F), a flower (φ86 × 9 mm; 3 layers; 15:85) whose petals were filled with the offal mixture. To reach 72 °C at the core of the product, 3D-printed products were baked at 180 °C with 70% steam, respectively 5 min for 'C' and 2 min 45 for 'F'. 3D-printed products were packaged under two modified atmosphere packaging (MAP): O 2-MAP with 70% oxygen [O 2 ] + 30% carbon dioxide [CO 2 ] or N 2-MAP with 70% nitrogen [N 2 ] + 30% [CO 2 ], then stored at 4°C during 21 days. Analyses were performed on the raw materials and on the product after printing and during storage on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. Water content, water activity (a w) and pH were measured. Heme iron (HI) rate was determined by the Hornsey method's (Hornsey, 1956) and non-heme iron (NHI) was estimated according to Ahn et al. (1993). Lipid oxidation was measured by dosing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs). Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) tests were performed on 'C' at 20°C using a texture analyser (EZ-Test LX, Shimadzu, France) with a cylinder probe diameter 50 mm and a double compression at 50% of the sample height. All analyses were carried out in triplicates. The results were statistically analyzed through Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey post-hoc test. Results and Discussion: Liver iron content was 20.51 ± 1.05 mg/100g and 22.95 ± 1.41 mg/100g for pork and poultry respectively. After 21 days of storage, the 3D-printed hybrid products displayed iron content of around 13 mg/100g, regardless the product shape ('C' or 'F') and packaging method (O 2-MAP or N 2-MAP). These products can be considered as sources of iron which especially fit with the daily needs for women and can thus reduce the incidence of iron deficiency. Most of the changes occurred from day 7 for products stored under O 2-MAP. Indeed, TPA tests indicated that hardness, gumminess and chewiness were higher with O 2-MAP from (p < 0.05) than N 2-MAP. In the same way, lipid oxidation was significantly greater in O 2-MAP conditions from day 7 (p < 0.05) while the TBARs values for products 'C' and 'F' remained constant until day 21 with N 2-MAP. HI content (5 to 10% of total iron) dropped more sharply when the products were stored under O 2-MAP with a decrease of 0.65 mg/100g compared to 0.06 mg/100g under N 2-MAP between days 0 and 7. A change in liver color was also visually perceived from day 7. On the contrary, MAP conditions had no impact on the NHI content which decreased over time (average loss of 13.5% for 'C' and 27% for 'F' between D0 and D21). In parallel, pH, a w , water content, remained globally stable whatever MAP during the 21 days of storage with some variations between the two forms mainly due to their composition and not to their proper form. Conclusions: These iron-rich 3D-printed hybrid products open up prospects for preventing iron deficiency while valorizing animal by-products. 3D-printing demonstrated its potential for rapid prototyping to design functional foods. N 2-MAP seems to have limited the oxidation of the 3D-printed products and further stabilized their physicochemical characteristics and texture properties.
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hal-03762795 , version 1 (29-08-2022)

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  • HAL Id : hal-03762795 , version 1

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Coline Schiell, Stéphane Portanguen, Valerie Scislowski, Thierry Astruc, Pierre-Sylvain Mirade. Investigation of the physicochemical and textural properties of an iron-rich 3D-printed hybrid food. 68. International Congress of Meat Science & Technology, Aug 2022, Kobe, Japan. ⟨hal-03762795⟩

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