A Comprehensive Overview of the Genes and Functions Required for Lettuce Infection by the Hemibiotrophic Phytopathogen Xanthomonas hortorum pv. vitians - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles mSystems Year : 2022

A Comprehensive Overview of the Genes and Functions Required for Lettuce Infection by the Hemibiotrophic Phytopathogen Xanthomonas hortorum pv. vitians

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Abstract

The successful infection of a host plant by a phytopathogenic bacterium depends on a finely tuned molecular cross talk between the two partners. Thanks to transposon insertion sequencing techniques (Tn-seq), whole genomes can now be assessed to determine which genes are important for the fitness of several plant-associated bacteria in planta. Despite its agricultural relevance, the dynamic molecular interaction established between the foliar hemibiotrophic phytopathogen Xanthomonas hortorum pv. vitians and its host, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), remains completely unknown. To decipher the genes and functions mobilized by the pathogen throughout the infection process, we conducted a Tn-seq experiment in lettuce leaves to mimic the selective pressure occurring during natural infection. This genome-wide screening identified 170 genes whose disruption caused serious fitness defects in lettuce. A thorough examination of these genes using comparative genomics and gene set enrichment analyses highlighted that several functions and pathways were highly critical for the pathogen's survival. Numerous genes involved in amino acid, nucleic acid, and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis were critical. The xps type II secretion system operon, a few TonB-dependent transporters involved in carbohydrate or siderophore scavenging, and multiple genes of the carbohydrate catabolism pathways were also critical, emphasizing the importance of nutrition systems in a nutrient-limited environment. Finally, several genes implied in camouflage from the plant immune system and resistance to immunity-induced oxidative stress were strongly involved in host colonization. As a whole, these results highlight some of the central metabolic pathways and cellular functions critical for Xanthomonas host adaptation and pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Xanthomonas hortorum was recently the subject of renewed interest, as several studies highlighted that its members were responsible for diseases in a wide range of plant species, including crops of agricultural relevance (e.g., tomato and carrot). Among X. hortorum variants, X. hortorum pv. vitians is a reemerging foliar hemibiotrophic phytopathogen responsible for severe outbreaks of bacterial leaf spot of lettuce all around the world. Despite recent findings, sustainable and practical means of disease control remain to be developed. Understanding the host-pathogen interaction from a molecular perspective is crucial to support these efforts. The genes and functions mobilized by X. hortorum pv. vitians during its interaction with lettuce had never been investigated. Our study sheds light on these processes by screening the whole pathogen genome for genes critical for its fitness during the infection process, using transposon insertion sequencing and comparative genomics.
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hal-03775368 , version 1 (12-09-2022)

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Attribution - CC BY 4.0

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Lucas Morinière, Laurène Mirabel, Erwan Gueguen, Franck Bertolla. A Comprehensive Overview of the Genes and Functions Required for Lettuce Infection by the Hemibiotrophic Phytopathogen Xanthomonas hortorum pv. vitians. mSystems, 2022, 7 (2), ⟨10.1128/msystems.01290-21⟩. ⟨hal-03775368⟩
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