Acute death associated with Citrobacter freundii infection in an African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation Year : 2015

Acute death associated with Citrobacter freundii infection in an African elephant ( Loxodonta africana )

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Joaquín Ortega
  • Function : Author
Juan Corpa
  • Function : Author
José Orden
  • Function : Author
Jorge Blanco
  • Function : Author
María Carbonell
  • Function : Author
Amalia Gerique
  • Function : Author
Erin Latimer
  • Function : Author
Gary Hayward
  • Function : Author
Andreas Roemmelt
  • Function : Author
Thomas Kraemer
  • Function : Author
Aurore Romey
  • Function : Author
Labib Kassimi
  • Function : Author
Miguel Casares
  • Function : Author

Abstract

A 21-year-old male African elephant ( Loxodonta africana) died suddenly with no previous medical history. Grossly, there were severe multifocal epicardial and endocardial hemorrhages of the atria and ventricles, hydropericardium, multifocal pleural hemorrhages, and severe pulmonary congestion and edema. Histologically, there was fibrinoid vasculitis and thrombosis in the heart and lung and myocardial necrosis. Citrobacter freundii was isolated in abundance in pure culture from liver and heart samples. Low levels of multiples types of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV-6, EEHV-2B, and EEHV-3A) were detected in spleen samples, but not in heart samples. The levels of EEHV DNA found were much lower than those usually associated with acute EEHV hemorrhagic disease, and many other genomic loci that would normally be found in such cases were evidently below the level of detection. Therefore, these findings are unlikely to indicate lethal EEHV disease. Polymerase chain reaction for encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and toxicology for oleander ( Nerium oleander) were negative. Stress, resulting from recent transport, and antimicrobial therapy may have contributed to the death of this animal.
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Dates and versions

hal-03941597 , version 1 (16-01-2023)

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Joaquín Ortega, Juan Corpa, José Orden, Jorge Blanco, María Carbonell, et al.. Acute death associated with Citrobacter freundii infection in an African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 2015, 27 (5), pp.632-636. ⟨10.1177/1040638715596034⟩. ⟨hal-03941597⟩
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