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Journal Articles OENO One Year : 2023

A systemic approach to grapevine decline diagnosed using three key indicators: plant mortality, yield loss and vigour decrease

Abstract

Grapevine decline, a major global viticulture issue, is defined as a multi-year decrease in vine productivity and/or increase in vine mortality. Although grapevine trunk diseases are one of the most studied causes, the decline is multifactorial and associated with more than 70 factors, including abiotic and biotic hazards. With so many factors to consider, the phenomenon is difficult to understand. Our study aims to make it easier to determine and assess grapevine decline by focusing on three key indicators: yield, mortality and vegetative vigour. We investigated the relationships between these indicators from both a temporal and spatial perspective to propose a set of diagnostic indicators. Thus, we conducted a winegrower survey, a historical analysis of grapevine decline and field measurements of the abovementioned indicators on plot networks in three major French winegrowing regions (see graphical abstract): Bordeaux, Cognac and Languedoc. We found that winegrowers' perceptions of decline were consistent with an objective characterisation based on field measurements of the indicators. Although vine mortality progressively spread over the years, neither the survey nor the historical analysis showed a direct link between decline and yield loss. Rather, large yearly fluctuations in yield, which did not systematically decrease over time, account for this finding. As a result, the mortality rate and the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) indicators were shown to be earlier indicators of grapevine decline than yield loss (addressed from the yield achievement ratio, YAR). We performed a multifactorial analysis of the overall data set from the three regions to deepen our understanding of the diversity of declining situations and the underlying environmental and management factors contributing to decline. Finally, two ground-based NDVI indicators and an image-analysis methodology using aerial photographs were proposed as easy-to-obtain indicators of grapevine decline. NDVI indicators were linearly correlated with both the YAR and mortality rate. This study provides a better understanding and promising tools for the early diagnosis of grapevine decline.
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hal-03960649 , version 1 (27-01-2023)

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Anne Merot, Guillaume Coulouma, Nathalie Smits, Elsa Robelot, Christian Gary, et al.. A systemic approach to grapevine decline diagnosed using three key indicators: plant mortality, yield loss and vigour decrease. OENO One, 2023, 57 (1), ⟨10.20870/oeno-one.2023.57.1.5575⟩. ⟨hal-03960649⟩
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