Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of betaine in CBS and cblC deficiencies: a cross-over randomized controlled trial - INRAE - Institut national de recherche pour l’agriculture, l’alimentation et l’environnement Access content directly
Journal Articles Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases Year : 2022

Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of betaine in CBS and cblC deficiencies: a cross-over randomized controlled trial

Abstract

Abstract Background Betaine is an “alternate” methyl donor for homocysteine remethylation catalyzed by betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), an enzyme mainly expressed in the liver and kidney. Betaine has been used for more than 30 years in pyridoxine non-responsive cystathionine beta-synthase (pnrCBS) and cobalamin C (cblC) deficiencies to lower the hyperhomocysteinemia, although little is known about the optimal therapeutic dosage and its pharmacokinetic in these patients. Aims We compared 2 betaine doses (100 mg/kg/day vs. 250 mg/kg/day) in children affected by pnrCBS or cblC deficiencies. We also measured the pharmacokinetics parameters after a single dose of betaine (100 or 250 mg/kg) in these patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized, crossover clinical trial with blinded evaluation. The primary outcome was the equivalence of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations upon one-month oral treatment with betaine at 100 versus 250 mg/kg/day. Results Eleven patients completed the study (5 pnrCBS and 6 cblC). tHcy concentrations were equivalent after a one-month treatment period for the two betaine dosages. Multivariate analysis showed a significant effect of betaine dose on methionine (Met) ( p = 0.01) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) concentrations ( p = 0.006). Conclusions Our analysis shows that there is no overt benefit to increasing betaine dosage higher than 100 mg/kg/day to lower tHcy concentrations in pnrCBS and cblC deficiencies. However, increasing betaine up to 250 mg/kg/d could benefit cblC patients through the increase of methionine and SAM concentrations, as low Met and SAM concentrations are involved in the pathophysiology of this disease. In contrast, in pnrCBS deficiency, betaine doses higher than 100 mg/kg/day could be harmful to these patients with pre-existing hypermethioninemia. Trial registration : Clinical Trials, NCT02404337. Registered 23 May 2015—prospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov .
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Dates and versions

hal-03978689 , version 1 (08-02-2023)

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Apolline Imbard, Artemis Toumazi, Sophie Magréault, Nuria Garcia-Segarra, Dimitri Schlemmer, et al.. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of betaine in CBS and cblC deficiencies: a cross-over randomized controlled trial. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 2022, 17 (1), pp.417. ⟨10.1186/s13023-022-02567-4⟩. ⟨hal-03978689⟩
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