Acetylcholinesterases from Elapidae snake venoms: biochemical, immunological and enzymatic characterization - INRAE - Institut national de recherche pour l’agriculture, l’alimentation et l’environnement Access content directly
Journal Articles Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology Year : 1997

Acetylcholinesterases from Elapidae snake venoms: biochemical, immunological and enzymatic characterization

Abstract

We analyzed 45 batches of venom from 20 different species belonging to 11 genera from the 3 main families of venomous snakes (Elapidae, Viperidae and Crotalidae). We found high acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in all venoms from Elapidae, except in those from the Dendroaspis genus. AChE was particularly abundant in Bungarus venoms which contain up to 8 mg of enzyme per gram of dried venom. We could not detect acetylcholinesterase activity in any batch of venom from Viperidae or Crotalidae. Titration of active sites with an organophosphorous agent (MPT) revealed that the AChE of all venoms have similar turnovers (6000 to 8000 s(-1)) which are clearly higher than those of Torpedo and mammalian enzymes but lower than that of Electrophorus. AChEs from the venom of elapid snakes of the Bungarus, Naja, Ophiophagus and Haemacatus genera were purified by affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis and sucrose gradient centrifugation demonstrated that AChE is exclusively present as a nonamphiphilic monomer. These enzymes are true AChEs, hydrolyzing acetylthiocholine faster than propionylthiocholine and butyrylthiocholine and exhibiting excess substrate inhibition. Twenty-seven different monoclonal antibodies directed against AChE from Bungarus fasciatus venom were raised in mice. Half of them recognized exclusively the Bungarus enzyme while the others cross-reacted with AChEs from other venoms. Polyspecific mAbs were used to demonstrate that venoms from Dendroaspis, which contain the AChE inhibitor fasciculin but lack AChE activity, were also devoid of immunoreactive AChE protein. AChE inhibitors acting at the active site (edrophonium, tacrine) and at the peripheral site (propidium, fasciculin), as well as bis-quaternary ligands (BW284C51, decamethonium), were tested against the venom AChEs from 11 different species. All enzymes had a very similar pattern of reactivity with regard to the different inhibitors, with the exception of fasciculin. AChEs from Naja and Haemacatus venoms were relatively insensitive to fasciculin inhibition (IC50 >> 10(-6) M), while Bungarus (IC50 approximately 10(-8) M) and especially Ophiophagus (IC50 < 10(-10) M) AChEs were inhibited very efficiently. Ophiophagus and Bungarus AChEs were also efficiently inhibited by a monoclonal antibody (Elec-410) previously described as a specific ligand for the Electrophorus electricus peripheral site. Taken together, these results show that the venoms of most Elapidae snakes contain large amounts of a highly active non-amphiphilic monomeric AChE. All snake venom AChEs show strong immunological similarities and possess very similar enzymatic properties. However, they present quite different sensitivity to peripheral site inhibitors, fasciculin and the monoclonal antibody Elec-410.

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hal-04083959 , version 1 (27-04-2023)

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Yveline Frobert, Christophe Créminon, Xavier Cousin, Marie-Hélène Rémy, Jean-Marc Chatel, et al.. Acetylcholinesterases from Elapidae snake venoms: biochemical, immunological and enzymatic characterization. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology, 1997, 1339 (2), pp. 253-267. ⟨10.1016/S0167-4838(97)00009-5⟩. ⟨hal-04083959⟩

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