GRM1 Gene Fusions as an Alternative Molecular Driver in Blue Nevi and Related Melanomas - INRAE - Institut national de recherche pour l’agriculture, l’alimentation et l’environnement Access content directly
Journal Articles Modern Pathology Year : 2023

GRM1 Gene Fusions as an Alternative Molecular Driver in Blue Nevi and Related Melanomas

Abstract

Activating mutations in GNAQ, GNA11, CYSLTR2, and PLCB4 genes are regarded as the main oncogenic drivers of blue nevi (BN) and blue malignant melanocytic tumors. Here we report 4 cases of blue melanocytic neoplasms devoid of these mutations but harboring GRM1 gene fusions. In this short series, there was no gender predominance (sex ratio, 1). The mean age at diagnosis was 40 years (range, 12-72). Tumors were located on the face (n 1/4 2), forearm (n 1/4 1), and dorsum of the foot (n 1/4 1). Clinically, a plaque-like pre-existing BN was found in 2 cases, including a deep location; another case presented as an Ota nevus. Two cases were diagnosed as melanoma ex-BN, one as an atypical BN, and one as a plaque-like BN. Microscopic examination revealed a dermal proliferation of dendritic melanocytes in a sclerotic stroma. A dermal cellular nodule with atypia and mitotic activity was observed in 3 cases. Genetic investigation by whole exome RNA sequencing revealed MYO10::GRM1 (n 1/4 2) and ZEB2::GRM1 (n 1/4 1) fusions. A GRM1 rearrangement was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the remaining case. SF3B1 comutations were present in the 2 melanomas, and both had a MYO10::GRM1 fusion. Array comparative genomic hybridization was feasible for 3 cases and displayed multiple copy number alterations in the 2 melanomas and limited copy number alterations in the atypical BN, all genomic profiles compatible with those of classical blue lesions. GRM1 was overexpressed in all cases compared with a control group of blue lesions with other typical mutations. Both melanomas rapidly developed visceral metastases following diagnosis, with a fatal outcome in one case and tumor progression under palliative care in the other. These data suggest that GRM1 gene fusions could represent an additional rare oncogenic driver in the setting of BN, mutually exclusive of classical canonical mutations, especially in plaque-type or Ota subtypes.
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hal-04414643 , version 1 (24-01-2024)

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Thibault Kervarrec, Giuseppe Lo Bello, Daniel Pissaloux, Franck Tirode, Nicolas Poulalhon, et al.. GRM1 Gene Fusions as an Alternative Molecular Driver in Blue Nevi and Related Melanomas. Modern Pathology, 2023, 36 (10), pp.100264. ⟨10.1016/j.modpat.2023.100264⟩. ⟨hal-04414643⟩
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