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Theses

De l'évaluation de la performance globale d'une exploitation agricole à l'évaluation de la politique publique agro-environnementale de la Politique Agricole Commune : une approche par les indicateurs agro-environnementaux

Abstract : This thesis analyses the contribution of agri-environmental indicators to the evaluation process of two economic instruments of the agri-environmental policy of the Common Agricultural Policy: the Agri-Environmental Measures (AEM) in a process of ex-post evaluation and the article 68 from CAP regulation in an ex-ante evaluation process. The first part of the work puts our works in the state of the art of the concepts involved (agro-environmental indicator, environmental performance, sustainable agriculture, policy evaluation).The second part presents results in a set of seven articles or communications. The third part discusses two issues : (1) the theoretical basis of the IDEA method in the different schools of thought of Corporate Social Responsibility and (2) the transformation of the policy making resulting from the new use of agri-environmental indicators for managing the performance of the agri-environmental public intervention. The methodological approach distinguishes two levels of analysis concerning the use of agri-environmental indicators in the evaluation process of agro-environmental policy: the farm level and the agro-environmental policy. On the farm scale, two types of works are developed. The agri-environmental indicator is first studied as a tool for assessing the environmental performance of agricultural practices. This ability of agri-environmental indicators to report the concept of environmental performance is analysed from a case study testing the validation of the surface water component for four pesticides indicators (ADSCOR, EIQ, EPRIP, I-phy). Results show that amoung these four indicators, I-Phy indicator presents the best usefulness test score. However, results conclude also that none of the four surface water components has been validated. Secondly, the agro-environmental indicator is studied as a tool of evaluation of the sustainability of a farm. To qualify this concept, our works have firstly contributed to develop the IDEA method (Indicateur de Durabilité d'une Exploitation Agricole) and secondly to test it on different types of farms. The IDEA method is presented as a self-assessment grid structured with 41 indicators covering the three dimensions of agriculture sustainability (agroecological, socio-territorial and economic). In an ex-ante evaluation process, we show that twenty one of IDEA indicators can be used for qualifying the degree of durability of French agricultural farm systems. In addition, the analysis of the theoretical base of the IDEA method shows that this method takes part into the European current of the Corporate Social Responsibility and measures the Global Performance of a farm. On the agri-environmental policy scale, we proposed an integrated approach linking agri-environmental indicators and econometric methods to estimate the treatment effects of AEM in an ex-post evaluation process. Agri-environmental indicator is then considered as an output variable to assess the environmental performance level of the farm. This approach has been applied to the ex-post evaluation of French AEM program over the period 2000 to 2006. Taking into account data availability and scale representativeness of French agricultural statistical databases, we identify, amoung 220 indicators methods, 40 relevant indicators capable to be integrated in econometric methods in order to assess the net effects of the French water and biodiversity AEM. Finally, we study the process of agri-environmental indicators spreading in the agri-environmental policy making action. The analysis of French Écophyto plan shows that the two indicators (NODU and IFT) mobilized in the Écophyto plan are involved in the process of a new agro-environmental policy governance. These two agro-environmental indicators act as an instrument for the governmental policy and facilitate the way from a policy making based on statutory policies to procedural policies.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/tel-02595548
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Submitted on : Friday, May 15, 2020 - 8:08:07 PM
Last modification on : Sunday, October 25, 2020 - 7:06:55 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-02595548, version 1
  • IRSTEA : PUB00032763

Citation

Frédéric Zahm. De l'évaluation de la performance globale d'une exploitation agricole à l'évaluation de la politique publique agro-environnementale de la Politique Agricole Commune : une approche par les indicateurs agro-environnementaux. Sciences de l'environnement. Thèse en économie de l'agriculture et des ressources naturelles de l'Université Européenne de Bretagne, Agrocampus Ouest, 2011. Français. ⟨tel-02595548⟩

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