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Du gène au phénotype : contrôle génétique et modélisation du métabolisme des sucres chez la pêche

Abstract : Fruit quality is a multi-criteria character with frequent antagonistic relationships. The perceptionof the fruit quality is highly dependent on the balance between the levels of sugars and acids. Among thethree so-called major sugars in fruit that are sucrose, glucose and fructose, fructose is the sweetest and itsconcentration is the factor that most affects the fruit sweetness. The objective of the present thesis is toanalyze the sugar metabolism in peach fruit from metabolic, enzymatic and genetic aspects and integrateinto a mathematical model all information obtained. This work focuses on the identification of the effect of alow fructose concentration on the whole sugar metabolism and the understanding of the mechanismsresponsible of this phenotype called ‘low-fructose-to-glucose-ratio’. A nearly exhaustive biochemicalcharacterization of sugar metabolism was conducted along peach fruit development. For this, 6 metabolitesand 12 enzyme capacities were assayed in 106 genotypes of a population derived from an interspecific cross.This study revealed a high stability of the enzyme capacities despite large variations of metabolites. Based ondata from 10 genotypes, a kinetic metabolic model that simulates the sugar accumulation in fruit wasdeveloped and validated. This model simulates contrasting phenotypes and helps in understanding theunderlying mechanisms of the ‘low-fructose-to-glucose-ratio’ phenotype. The biochemical characterizationof the population gave the opportunity to perform a QTL research. It highlighted the instability of the effectof certain loci along fruit development and QTL collocations of metabolites, enzyme capacities and candidategenes. It also confirmed the genomic region responsible for the ‘low-fructose-to-glucose-ratio’ phenotypewithin which a functional candidate gene was identified. It is a gene homologous to fructose vacuolartransporter (SWEET17) recently discovered in Arabidopsis. An analysis of this gene was engaged to validateits function and its responsibility in the ‘low-fructose-to-glucose-ratio’ phenotype. In the future, theintegration of the genetic control into the metabolic model will allow simulating virtual genotypes withdifferent combinations of alleles and predict their sugar content. Optimizing allele combinations to increasesugar concentrations in peach fruit will undoubtedly give new breeding opportunities.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 5, 2020 - 11:18:52 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02794439, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 354146



Elsa Desnoues. Du gène au phénotype : contrôle génétique et modélisation du métabolisme des sucres chez la pêche. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, 2015. Français. ⟨tel-02794439⟩



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