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Démarche d’ingénierie écologique en santé des plantes : étude du rôle des couvre-sol végétaux des vergers dansl'émergence des maladies des arbres fruitiers causées par Pseudomonas syringae

Abstract : Process of ecological engineering in plant health: study of the role of orchard ground cover plants in the emergence of fruit tree diseases caused by Pseudomonas syringaeIdentification of reservoirs and inoculum sources of plant pathogenic microorganisms is a major issue in plant pathology. Perennial agricultural systems, such as orchards, are exposed to many pests and pathogenic microorganisms. P. syringae, a phytopathogenic bacterium responsible for the emergence of diseases of fruit trees, including the recent outbreak of bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused P. syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), represent an important economic issue worldwide. In France, means of control of bacterial canker consist of copper treatments and preventive measures in order to reduce the spread of bacteria within and between orchards. With the awareness for environmental conservation by consumers and producers, current cultivation methods tend to be progressively replaced by more agroecological ones and the use of ecological engineering to improve plant health. Ecological engineering of orchard ground cover plant communities provides good results for the control of orchard pests, such as herbivorous arthropods, but the effects on pathogenic microbial communities remains unexplored. The ground cover plants and orchard weeds host abundant P. syringae communities, however the role of ground covers in the emergence of fruit tree diseases remains ignored. Therefore, the research presented here is focused on the simultaneous study of P. syringae communities associated with ground covers and fruit trees from three apricot and four kiwifruit orchards of Drôme county, southeastern France, chosen for their health status (healthy, diseased, or disease emergence), as well as different ground cover management practices (bare soil, ground cover in inter-rows, ground cover in inter-rows and tree rows). In the absence of tools for rapid identification and affiliation to one of 13 currently described phylogroups for the P. syringae species, the screening of whole genomes of more than fifty P. syringae strains has allowed the development of specific molecular markers able to identify 9 of the 13 phylogroups. Results show that ground cover P. syringae community abundances and structures are correlated to plant community composition. The presence of Prunella vulgaris, a plant of the Lamiaceae family, is correlated to a decrease in the P. syringae abundances. Reproducibility of this result is currently under investigation in an experimental field. However, preliminary results from the experimental field show that the presence of P. vulgaris in 1-year-old ground covers is not correlated to a decrease in P. syringae abundances. Simultaneous study of ground cover and fruit tree P. syringae communities highlight bacterial exchanges between these two compartments because of the presence of genetically correlated strains in both of them. When present, Psa coexist with other P. syringae, raising the question of the interaction between these strains and their role in the emergence of the disease. Finally, the results highlight a potential antagonism between phylogroups 1 and 2.
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Benoit Borschinger. Démarche d’ingénierie écologique en santé des plantes : étude du rôle des couvre-sol végétaux des vergers dansl'émergence des maladies des arbres fruitiers causées par Pseudomonas syringae. Autre [q-bio.OT]. Université d'Avignon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016AVIG0337⟩. ⟨tel-02798843v2⟩

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