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Transmission of a pestivirus infection in a population of Pyrenean chamois

Abstract : Outbreaks of a previously unrecorded disease have recently affected Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaicapyrenaica) populations across the mountain range. A pestivirus was hypothesized to be the cause of this emerging disease and this type of virus can cross the species barrier and be transmitted to or from wildlife. Using an epidemiological survey conducted from 1995 to 2004 at Orlu, France, we characterized the virus and analyzed its transmission. A phylogenetic analysis of viral sequences and virus neutralization tests showed that the virus belonged to the newly described border disease virus-4 group. The increase of seroprevalence with age indicated that infection can occur at any age and resulted in lifelong immunity. Overall, 70.3% of 323 samples were positive for anti-p80 antibodies and 10.2% of 167 samples showed viremia, as demonstrated by either positive ELISA antigen test or RT-PCR. Infection has thus been widespread in this population since 1995, whereas no mass mortality or clinical signs have been observed. Incidence and seroprevalence varied seasonally and according to number of individuals aged less than 2 years old in the population, so viral transmission was dependent on host population age structure. We propose that the virus is now endemic in this population and is likely detrimental for reproduction and juveniles. Further investigation is needed to estimate the impact of pestivirus on host population dynamics and the risk of cross-transmission to farm animals.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01908167
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Submitted on : Monday, October 29, 2018 - 8:06:02 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, July 20, 2021 - 5:20:06 PM

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Maryline Pioz, Anne Loison, Philippe Gibert, Dominique Dubray, Pierre Menaut, et al.. Transmission of a pestivirus infection in a population of Pyrenean chamois. Veterinary Microbiology, Elsevier, 2007, 119 (1), pp.19-30. ⟨10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.09.001⟩. ⟨hal-01908167⟩

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