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Genes involved in Drosophila melanogaster ovarian function are highly conserved throughout evolution

Abstract : This work presents a systematic approach to study the conservation of genes between fruit flies and mammals. We have listed 971 Drosophila genes involved in female reproduction at the ovarian level and systematically looked for orthologs in the Ciona, zebrafish, coelacanth, lizard, chicken, and mouse. Depending on the species, the percentage of these Drosophila genes with at least one ortholog varies between 69% and 78%. In comparison, only 42% of all the Drosophila genes have an ortholog in the mouse genome (P < 0.0001), suggesting a dramatically higher evolutionary conservation of ovarian genes. The 177 Drosophila genes that have no ortholog in mice and other vertebrates correspond to genes that are involved in mechanisms of oogenesis that are specific to the fruit fly or the insects. Among 759 genes with at least one ortholog in the zebrafish, 73 have an expression enriched in the ovary in this species (RNA-seq data). Among 760 genes that have at least one ortholog in the mouse; 76 and 11 orthologs are reported to be preferentially and exclusively expressed in the mouse ovary, respectively (based on the UniGene expressed sequence tag database). Several of them are already known to play a key role in murine oogenesis and/or to be enriched in the mouse/zebrafish oocyte, whereas others have remained unreported. We have investigated, by RNA-seq and real-time quantitative PCR, the exclusive ovarian expression of 10 genes in fish and mammals. Overall, we have found several novel candidates potentially involved in mammalian oogenesis by an evolutionary approach and using the fruit fly as an animal model.
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Sébastien Elis, Alice Desmarchais, Emilie Cardona, Sophie Fouchécourt, Rozenn Dalbies Tran, et al.. Genes involved in Drosophila melanogaster ovarian function are highly conserved throughout evolution. Genome Biology and Evolution, Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2018, 10 (10), pp.2629-2642. ⟨10.1093/gbe/evy158⟩. ⟨hal-01991460⟩

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