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Dinâmica da formação de crostas superficiais em função de práticas de preparo do solo e chuva simulada

Abstract : English title : Dynamic of surface crust formation in different tillage systems and simulated rainfall The crusts are the result of degradation of the surface structure of the soil, favoring erosion and environmental degradation of soils. This study evaluated the dynamics of the develop surface crusts and its consequences on the porosity, hydraulic conductivity (K), water retention, bulk density (Ds) and the roughness of a Typic Hapludult conducted with different systems of tillage and application of sheets simulated rainfall. Was also evaluated through the an laboratory experiment, the processes involved in the breakdown of aggregates under simulated rainfall. The experiment was conducted in the years 2009 and 2010. In plots of 15 x 30 m were installed the soil tillage: conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT) and no-tillage (NT). Inside of the plots was installed micro-plots of 1m x 1m, which were applied different sheets of simulated rainfall (0, 27, 54 and 80 mm) with intensity of 80 mm h-1. Roughness data, K measurements, sampling of undisturbed soil samples for porosity analysis and preparation of thin sections, and also cylindrical rings for water retention curve (SWRC) and Ds, were collected. In the laboratory experiment two soils (Silt Loam and Clay Loam) and two aggregate classes (1-3 and 3-5 mm) were used. The aggregates were submitted to different simulated rainfall (28mmh-1 + KE strong; 28mmh-1 + KE weak; 90mmh-1 + KE strong; 90mmh-1 + KE weak) and after the mean weight diameter (MWD) was evaluated. The dynamics of crust formation occurred differently in both tillage systems. In the CT and RT systems the major reduction of the porosity, by effect of the applied rainfall, occurred in the crust layer and in the NT system occurred in the subcrosta layer. Crust formation was responsible for reducing the porosity and K, and increasing Ds, in RT and CT systems. The higher volumetric moisture contents observed in CRA occurred in the PR system and the lowest in CT. The CRA did not show changes between the applied rainfall. The surface roughness of the soil varied in relation to the tillage systems. RT and NT systems showed a higher roughness in the first year during the second year a higher roughness was observed in the NT system. The CT in the two years studied showed the same trend of evolution according to of applied rainfall, initially there was an increase in roughness up to a maximum rain and then decrease. In the laboratory experiment, the largest DMP reductions occurred in the 3 and 2 mm rainfall for the Silt Loam and Clay Loam soils, respectively. In the initial amounts of rainfall, the intensity was determinant in the MWD reduction. With the increase in the amount of rainfall, the kinetic energy influences the MWD reduction. The intensity of 28 mm h-1 produced the greatest reductions in DMP, possibly due to the longer exposure of the aggregates to wetting.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02810300, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 189849

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Jaqueline Dalla Rosa. Dinâmica da formação de crostas superficiais em função de práticas de preparo do solo e chuva simulada. Life Sciences [q-bio]. Universidade de Sao Paulo, 2012. Portuguese. ⟨tel-02810300⟩

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