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Milk Microbiota: What Are We Exactly Talking About?

Abstract : The development of powerful sequencing techniques has allowed, albeit with some biases, the identification and inventory of complex microbial communities that inhabit different body sites or body fluids, some of which were previously considered sterile. Notably, milk is now considered to host a complex microbial community with great diversity. Milk microbiota is now well documented in various hosts. Based on the growing literature on this microbial community, we address here the question of what milk microbiota is. We summarize and compare the microbial composition of milk in humans and in ruminants and address the existence of a putative core milk microbiota. We discuss the factors that contribute to shape the milk microbiota or affect its composition, including host and environmental factors as well as methodological factors, such as the sampling and sequencing techniques, which likely introduce distortion in milk microbiota analysis. The roles that milk microbiota are likely to play in the mother and offspring physiology and health are presented together with recent data on the hypothesis of an enteromammary pathway. At last, this fascinating field raises a series of questions, which are listed and commented here and which open new research avenues.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 26, 2020 - 1:04:47 PM
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Georgios Oikonomou, Maria Filippa Addis, Christophe Chassard, María Elena Fátima Nader-Macías, I. Grant, et al.. Milk Microbiota: What Are We Exactly Talking About?. Frontiers in Microbiology, Frontiers Media, 2020, 11 (Article 60), ⟨10.3389/fmicb.2020.00060⟩. ⟨hal-02532783⟩

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