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A genomic map of climate adaptation in Mediterranean cattle breeds

Laurence Flori 1 Katayoun Moazami-Goudarzi 2 Véronique Alary 3 Abdelillah Araba 4 Ismaïl Boujenane 4 Nadjet Boushaba 5 François Casabianca 6 Sara Casu 7 Roberta Ciampolini 8 Armelle Coeur d'Acier 9 Corinne Coquelle 10 Juan-Vicente Delgado 11 Ahmed El-Beltagi 12 Georgia Hadjipavlou 13 Emmanuelle Jousselin 9 Vincenzo Landi 14 Anne Lauvie 1 Philippe Lecomte 1 Christina Ligda 15 Caroline Marinthe 10 Amparo Martínez 14 Salvatore Mastrangelo 16 Dalal Menni 4 Charles-Henri Moulin 1, 17 Mona-Abdelzaher Osman 12 Olivier Pineau 18 Baldassare Portolano 16 Clementina Rodellar 19 Nadhira Saïdi-Mehtar 5 Tiziana Sechi 7 Guilhem Sempere 20 Sophie Thevenon 20 Dimitrios Tsiokos 15 Denis Laloë 2 Mathieu Gautier 9, 21 
Abstract : Domestic species such as cattle (Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus) represent attractive biological models to characterize the genetic basis of short term evolutionary response to climate pressure induced by their post-domestication history. Here, using newly generated dense SNP genotyping data, we assessed the structuring of genetic diversity of 21 autochtonous cattle breeds from the whole Mediterranean basin and performed genome-wide association analyses with covariables discriminating the different Mediterranean climate sub-types. This provided insights into both the demographic and adaptive histories of Mediterranean cattle. In particular, a detailed functional annotation of genes surrounding variants associated with climate variations highlighted several biological functions involved in Mediterranean climate adaptation such as thermotolerance, UV protection, pathogen resistance or metabolism with strong candidate genes identified (e.g. NDUFB3, FBN1, METTL3, LEF1, ANTXR2 and TCF7). Accordingly, our results suggest that main selective pressures affecting cattle in Mediterranean area may have been related to variation in heat and UV exposure, in food resources availability and in exposure to pathogens, such as anthrax bacteria (Bacillus anthracis). Furthermore, the observed contribution of the three main bovine ancestries (indicine, European and African taurine) in these different populations suggested that adaptation to local climate conditions may have either relied, on standing genomic variation of taurine origin or adaptive introgression from indicine origin, depending on the local breed origins. Taken together, our results highlight the genetic uniqueness of local Mediterranean cattle breeds and strongly support conservation of these populations
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Laurence Flori, Katayoun Moazami-Goudarzi, Véronique Alary, Abdelillah Araba, Ismaïl Boujenane, et al.. A genomic map of climate adaptation in Mediterranean cattle breeds. Molecular Ecology, Wiley, 2019, 28 (5), pp.1009-1029. ⟨10.1111/mec.15004⟩. ⟨hal-02622739⟩



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