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Mammary gland transcriptome and proteome modifications by nutrient restriction in early lactation Holstein cows challenged with intramammary lipopolysaccharide

Abstract : The objective is to study the effects of nutrient restrictions, which induce a metabolic imbalance on the inflammatory response of the mammary gland in early lactation cows. The aim is to decipher the molecular mechanisms involved, by comparing a control, with a restriction group, a transcriptome and proteome, after an intra-mammary lipopolysaccharide challenge. Multi-parous cows were either allowed ad libitum intake of a lactation diet (n = 8), or a ration containing low nutrient density (n = 8; 48% barley straw and dry matter basis) for four days starting at 24 ± 3 days in milk. Three days after the initiation of their treatments, one healthy rear mammary quarter of 12 lactating cows was challenged with 50 µg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed on mammary biopsies obtained 24 h after the LPS challenge, using bovine 44K microarrays, and nano-LC-MS/MS, respectively. Restriction-induced deficits in energy, led to a marked negative energy balance (41 versus 97 ± 15% of Net Energy for Lactation (NEL) requirements) and metabolic imbalance. A microarray analyses identified 25 differentially expressed genes in response to restriction, suggesting that restriction had modified mammary metabolism, specifically β-oxidation process. Proteomic analyses identified 53 differentially expressed proteins, which suggests that the modification of protein synthesis from mRNA splicing to folding. Under-nutrition influenced mammary gland expression of the genes involved in metabolism, thereby increasing β-oxidation and altering protein synthesis, which may affect the response to inflammation.
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Karol Pawlowski, José Pires, Yannick Faulconnier, Christophe Chambon, Pierre Germon, et al.. Mammary gland transcriptome and proteome modifications by nutrient restriction in early lactation Holstein cows challenged with intramammary lipopolysaccharide. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, MDPI, 2019, 20 (5), 19 p. ⟨10.3390/ijms20051156⟩. ⟨hal-02625031⟩

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