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Long term effects of ART: what do animals tell us?

Abstract : Early stages of mammalian embryonic development are now known to be very sensitive to their microenvironment, with long term effects on fetal, postnatal and adult health, thus extending to these early stages the concept of Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DoHaD). In this scientific context, and with 3% of births in developed countries, safety of Assisted Reproductive Techniques procedures becomes a matter of concern. Besides, embryo technologies in domestic mammals, using huge number of embryos, do not seem to evidence heavy impacts on adult phenotypes. This paper first discusses what can or cannot be concluded from farm animal data, then develops long term effects of ART procedures (ovarian stimulation, in vitro fertilization and embryo culture) evidenced in model species (mainly mouse model). Recent literature demonstrates both individual and cumulative effects of each ART procedure on fetal and postnatal phenotypes. In a second part, because they are sources for further perturbations, immediate effects of ART on early embryo phenotypes at the cellular and molecular levels are described in both farm animals and model species. Mechanistic hypotheses supporting these ART induced phenotypic alterations are subsequently considered. Finally, taking into account interspecies differences in the mechanisms likely to be involved, the relevance of results obtained in animal models for human ART are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 26, 2020 - 11:44:22 PM
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Véronique Duranthon, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer. Long term effects of ART: what do animals tell us?. Molecular Reproduction and Development, Wiley, 2018, 85 (4), pp.348-368. ⟨10.1002/mrd.22970⟩. ⟨hal-02628749⟩



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