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Long-Lasting Metabolic Imbalance Related to Obesity Alters Olfactory Tissue Homeostasis and Impairs Olfactory-Driven Behaviors

Abstract : Obesity is associated with chronic food intake disorders and binge eating. Food intake relies on the interaction between homeostatic regulation and hedonic signals among which, olfaction is a major sensory determinant. However, its potential modulation at the peripheral level by a chronic energy imbalance associated to obese status remains a matter of debate. We further investigated the olfactory function in a rodent model relevant to the situation encountered in obese humans, where genetic susceptibility is juxtaposed on chronic eating disorders. Using several olfactory-driven tests, we compared the behaviors of obesity-prone Sprague-Dawley rats (OP) fed with a high-fat/high-sugar diet with those of obese-resistant ones fed with normal chow. In OP rats, we reported 1) decreased odor threshold, but 2) poor olfactory performances, associated with learning/memory deficits, 3) decreased influence of fasting, and 4) impaired insulin control on food seeking behavior. Associated with these behavioral modifications, we found a modulation of metabolism-related factors implicated in 1) electrical olfactory signal regulation (insulin receptor), 2) cellular dynamics (glucorticoids receptors, pro-and antiapoptotic factors), and 3) homeostasis of the olfactory mucosa and bulb (monocarboxylate and glucose transporters). Such impairments might participate to the perturbed daily food intake pattern that we observed in obese animals.
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Submitted on : Thursday, May 28, 2020 - 12:23:22 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, July 21, 2021 - 2:56:47 PM

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Marie-Christine Lacroix, Monique Caillol, Didier Durieux, Regine Monnerie, Denise Grebert, et al.. Long-Lasting Metabolic Imbalance Related to Obesity Alters Olfactory Tissue Homeostasis and Impairs Olfactory-Driven Behaviors. Chemical Senses, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2015, 40 (8), pp.537 - 556. ⟨10.1093/chemse/bjv039⟩. ⟨hal-02639575⟩

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