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Domestication-driven changes in plant traits associated with changes in the assembly of the rhizosphere microbiota in tetraploid wheat

Abstract : Despite the large morphological and physiological changes that plants have undergone through domestication, little is known about their impact on their microbiome. Here we characterized rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities as well as the abundance of N-cycling microbial guilds across thirty-nine accessions of tetraploid wheat, Triticum turgidum, from four domestication groups ranging from the wild subspecies to the semi dwarf elite cultivars. We identified several microbial phylotypes displaying significant variation in their relative abundance depending on the wheat domestication group with a stronger impact of domestication on fungi. The relative abundance of potential fungal plant pathogens belonging to the Sordariomycetes class decreased in domesticated compared to wild emmer while the opposite was found for members of the Glomeromycetes, which are obligate plant symbionts. The depletion of nitrifiers and of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in elite wheat cultivars compared to primitive domesticated forms suggests that the Green Revolution has decreased the coupling between plant and rhizosphere microbes that are potentially important for plant nutrient availability. Both plant diameter and fine root percentage exhibited the highest number of associations with microbial taxa, highlighting their putative role in shaping the rhizosphere microbiota during domestication. Aside from domestication, significant variation of bacterial and fungal community composition was found among accessions within each domestication group. In particular, the relative abundances of Ophiostomataceae and of Rhizobiales were strongly dependent on the host accession, with heritability estimates of ~ 27% and ~ 25%, indicating that there might be room for genetic improvement via introgression of ancestral plant rhizosphere-beneficial microbe associations. Crop domestication events led to spectacular modifications of plant traits increasing their suitability to human requirements. Cereals and especially wheat have been domesticated in the Middle East 1. Domestication process led to dramatic phenotypic changes in cultivated species in relation to cultivation conditions and human needs. The Domestication syndrome 2 refers to the whole set of phenotypic changes occurred during this process, including: loss of dormancy, increasing seed size, modifying seed dispersal mode and apical dominance as well photoperiod sensitivity. open
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Aymé Spor, Agathe Roucou, Arnaud Mounier, David Bru, Marie-Christine Breuil, et al.. Domestication-driven changes in plant traits associated with changes in the assembly of the rhizosphere microbiota in tetraploid wheat. Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, 2020, 10 (1), ⟨10.1038/s41598-020-69175-9⟩. ⟨hal-02918224⟩

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