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Low but contrasting neutral genetic differentiation shaped by winter temperature in European great tits

Mélissa Lemoine 1 Kay Lucek 2, 3 Charles Perrier 4 Verena Saladin 2 Frank Adriaensen 5, 6 Emilio Barba 7 Eduardo J. Belda 8 A. Charmantier 4 Mariusz Cichoń 9, 10 Tapio Eeva 11 Arnaud Grégoire 4 Camilla A. Hinde 12, 13 Arild Johnsen 14 Jan Komdeur 15 Raivo Mänd 16 Erik Matthysen 5, 6 Ana Cláudia Norte 17 Natalia Pitala 18 Ben C. Sheldon 19, 20 Tore Slagsvold 21 Joost M. Tinbergen 15, 22 János Török 23, 24 Richard Ubels 15, 22 Kees van Oers 25 Marcel Visser 25 Blandine Doligez 26, 27, 28 Heinz Richner 2 
Abstract : Gene flow is usually thought to reduce genetic divergence and impede local adaptation by homogenising gene pools between populations. However, evidence for local adaptation and phenotypic differentiation in highly mobile species, experiencing high levels of gene flow, is emerging. Assessing population genetic structure at different spatial scales is thus a crucial step towards understanding mechanisms underlying intraspecific differentiation and diversification. Here, we studied the population genetic structure of a highly mobile species - the great tit Parus major - at different spatial scales. We analysed 884 individuals from 30 sites across Europe including 10 close-by sites (< 50 km), using 22 microsatellite markers. Overall we found a low but significant genetic differentiation among sites (F-ST = 0.008). Genetic differentiation was higher, and genetic diversity lower, in south-western Europe. These regional differences were statistically best explained by winter temperature. Overall, our results suggest that great tits form a single patchy metapopulation across Europe, in which genetic differentiation is independent of geographical distance and gene flow may be regulated by environmental factors via movements related to winter severity. This might have important implications for the evolutionary trajectories of sub-populations, especially in the context of climate change, and calls for future investigations of local differences in costs and benefits of philopatry at large scales.
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Mélissa Lemoine, Kay Lucek, Charles Perrier, Verena Saladin, Frank Adriaensen, et al.. Low but contrasting neutral genetic differentiation shaped by winter temperature in European great tits. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Linnean Society of London, 2016, 118 (3), pp.668-685. ⟨10.1111/bij.12745⟩. ⟨hal-02921368⟩



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