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Low but contrasting neutral genetic differentiation shaped by winter temperature in European great tits

Mélissa Lemoine 1 Kay Lucek 2, 3 Charles Perrier 4 Verena Saladin 2 Frank Adriaensen 5, 6 Emilio Barba 7 Eduardo Belda 8 Anne Charmantier 9 Mariusz Cichoń 10, 11 Tapio Eeva 12 Arnaud Grégoire 9 Camilla Hinde 13, 14 Arild Johnsen 15 Jan Komdeur 16 Raivo Mänd 17 Erik Matthysen 5, 6 Ana Cláudia Norte 18 Natalia Pitala 19 Ben Sheldon 20, 21 Tore Slagsvold 22 Joost Tinbergen 16, 23 János Török 24, 25 Richard Ubels 16, 23 Kees van Oers 26 Marcel Visser 26 Blandine Doligez 27, 28, 29 Heinz Richner 2
Abstract : Gene flow is usually thought to reduce genetic divergence and impede local adaptation by homogenising gene pools between populations. However, evidence for local adaptation and phenotypic differentiation in highly mobile species, experiencing high levels of gene flow, is emerging. Assessing population genetic structure at different spatial scales is thus a crucial step towards understanding mechanisms underlying intraspecific differentiation and diversification. Here, we studied the population genetic structure of a highly mobile species - the great tit Parus major - at different spatial scales. We analysed 884 individuals from 30 sites across Europe including 10 close-by sites (< 50 km), using 22 microsatellite markers. Overall we found a low but significant genetic differentiation among sites (F-ST = 0.008). Genetic differentiation was higher, and genetic diversity lower, in south-western Europe. These regional differences were statistically best explained by winter temperature. Overall, our results suggest that great tits form a single patchy metapopulation across Europe, in which genetic differentiation is independent of geographical distance and gene flow may be regulated by environmental factors via movements related to winter severity. This might have important implications for the evolutionary trajectories of sub-populations, especially in the context of climate change, and calls for future investigations of local differences in costs and benefits of philopatry at large scales.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, August 25, 2020 - 10:09:22 AM
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Mélissa Lemoine, Kay Lucek, Charles Perrier, Verena Saladin, Frank Adriaensen, et al.. Low but contrasting neutral genetic differentiation shaped by winter temperature in European great tits. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Linnean Society of London, 2016, 118 (3), pp.668-685. ⟨10.1111/bij.12745⟩. ⟨hal-02921368⟩



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