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Identification of the molecular determinants driving the substrate specificity of fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs)

Abstract : Understanding enzymatic breakdown of plant biomass is crucial to develop nature-inspired biotechnological processes. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are microbial enzymes secreted by fungal saprotrophs involved in carbon recycling. LPMOs modify biomass by oxidatively cleaving polysaccharides, thereby enhancing the efficiency of glycoside hydrolases. Fungal AA9 LPMOs are active on cellulose, but some members also display activity on hemicelluloses and/or oligosaccharides. Although the active site subsites are well defined for a few model LPMOs, the molecular determinants driving broad substrate specificity are still not easily predictable. Based on bioinformatic clustering and sequence alignments, we selected seven fungal AA9 LPMOs that differ in the amino-acid residues constituting their subsites. Investigation of their substrate specificities revealed that all these LPMOs are active on cellulose and cello-oligosaccharides, as well as plant cell wall–derived hemicellulosic polysaccharides, and carry out C4 oxidative cleavage. The product profiles from cello-oligosaccharide degradation suggest that the subtle differences in amino-acid sequence within the substrate-binding loop regions lead to different preferred binding modes. Our functional analyses allowed us to probe the molecular determinants of substrate binding within two AA9 LPMO subclusters. Many wood-degrading fungal species rich in AA9 genes have at least one AA9 enzyme with structural loop features that allow recognition of short β-(1,4)–linked glucan chains. Time-course monitoring of these AA9 LPMOs on cello-oligosaccharides also provides a useful model system for mechanistic studies of LPMO catalysis. These results are valuable for the understanding of LPMO contribution to wood decaying process in nature and for the development of sustainable biorefineries.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-03126082
Contributor : Jean-Guy Berrin <>
Submitted on : Saturday, January 30, 2021 - 12:35:38 PM
Last modification on : Friday, February 5, 2021 - 3:54:02 AM

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Kristian E.H. Frandsen, Kristian Frandsen, Mireille Haon, Sacha Grisel, Bernard Henrissat, et al.. Identification of the molecular determinants driving the substrate specificity of fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). Journal of Biological Chemistry, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2021, 296, pp.100086. ⟨10.1074/jbc.RA120.015545⟩. ⟨hal-03126082⟩

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