Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
Journal articles

Review: Hydrogeology of weathered crystalline/hard-rock aquifers—guidelines for the operational survey and management of their groundwater resources

Abstract : Hard rocks or crystalline rocks (i.e., plutonic and metamorphic rocks) constitute the basement of all continents, and are particularly exposed at the surface in the large shields of Africa, India, North and South America, Australia and Europe. They were, and are still in some cases, exposed to deep weathering processes. The storativity and hydraulic conductivity of hard rocks, and thus their groundwater resources, are controlled by these weathering processes, which created weathering profiles. Hard-rock aquifers then develop mainly within the first 100 m below ground surface, within these weathering profiles. Where partially or noneroded, these weathering profiles comprise: (1) a capacitive but generally low-permeability unconsolidated layer (the saprolite), located immediately above (2) the permeable stratiform fractured layer (SFL). The development of the SFL’s fracture network is the consequence of the stress induced by the swelling of some minerals, notably biotite. To a much lesser extent, further weathering, and thus hydraulic conductivity, also develops deeper below the SFL, at the periphery of or within preexisting geological discontinuities (joints, dykes, veins, lithological contacts, etc.). The demonstration and recognition of this conceptual model have enabled understanding of the functioning of such aquifers. Moreover, this conceptual model has facilitated a comprehensive corpus of applied methodologies in hydrogeology and geology, which are described in this review paper such as water-well siting, mapping hydrogeological potentialities from local to country scale, quantitative management, hydrodynamical modeling, protection of hard-rock groundwater resources (even in thermal and mineral aquifers), computing the drainage discharge of tunnels, quarrying, etc.
Document type :
Journal articles
Complete list of metadata

https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-03321731
Contributor : Isabelle Nault Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Wednesday, August 18, 2021 - 9:27:31 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, September 15, 2021 - 10:48:03 AM

File

Lachassagne_2021_Hydrogeology ...
Files produced by the author(s)

Licence


Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Identifiers

Citation

Patrick Lachassagne, Benoît Dewandel, Robert Wyns. Review: Hydrogeology of weathered crystalline/hard-rock aquifers—guidelines for the operational survey and management of their groundwater resources. Hydrogeology Journal, Springer Verlag, In press, ⟨10.1007/s10040-021-02339-7⟩. ⟨hal-03321731⟩

Share

Metrics

Record views

91

Files downloads

100