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Maize In Planta Haploid Inducer Lines: A Cornerstone for Doubled Haploid Technology

Abstract : Doubled haploid (DH) technology produces strictly homozygous fertile plant thanks to doubling the chromosomes of a haploid embryo/seedling. Haploid embryos are derived from either male or female germ line cells and hold only half the number of chromosomes found in somatic plant tissues, albeit in a recombinant form due to meiotic genetic shuffling. DH production allows to rapidly fix these recombinant haploid genomes in the form of perfectly homozygous plants (inbred lines), which are produced in two rather than six or more generations. Thus, DH breeding enables fast evaluation of phenotypic traits on homogenous progeny. While for most crops haploid embryos are produced by costly and often genotype-dependent in vitro methods, for maize, two unique in planta systems are available to induce haploid embryos directly in the seed. Two "haploid inducer lines", identified from spontaneous maize mutants, are able to induce embryos of paternal or maternal origin. Although effortless crosses with lines of interest are sufficient to trigger haploid embryos, substantial improvements were necessary to bring DH technology to large scale production. They include the development of modern haploid inducer lines with high induction rates (8-12%), and methods to sort kernels with haploid embryos from the normal ones. Chromosome doubling represents also a crucial step in the DH process. Recent identification of genomic loci involved in spontaneous doubling opens up perspectives for a fully in planta DH pipeline in maize. Although discovered more than 60 years ago, maize haploid inducer lines still make headlines thanks to novel applications and findings. Indeed, maternal haploid induction was elegantly diverted to deliver genome editing machinery in germplasm recalcitrant to transformation techniques. The recent discovery of two molecular players controlling haploid induction allowed to revisit the mechanistic basis of maize maternal haploid induction and to successfully translate haploid induction ability to other crops.
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Submitted on : Monday, September 6, 2021 - 1:23:09 PM
Last modification on : Sunday, September 26, 2021 - 3:26:55 AM

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Nathanaël Jacquier, Laurine Gilles, Jean-Pierre Martinant, Peter Rogowsky, Thomas Widiez. Maize In Planta Haploid Inducer Lines: A Cornerstone for Doubled Haploid Technology. Doubled Haploid Technology, 2288, pp.25 - 48, 2021, ⟨10.1007/978-1-0716-1335-1_2⟩. ⟨hal-03335607⟩

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