The Yucatan minipig model: A new preclinical model of malnutrition induced by a low-calorie/low-protein diet - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Clinical Nutrition Year : 2022

The Yucatan minipig model: A new preclinical model of malnutrition induced by a low-calorie/low-protein diet

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Abstract

Background & aims Severe malnutrition exposes patients to adverse outcomes and a higher mortality risk. The Yucatan minipig, closer to human physiology than murine models could be a pertinent and innovative experimental model for studying the physiopathology and consequences of severe malnutrition. The present study aimed to determine whether a low calorie/low protein diet (LC/LP) can reproduce marasmus malnutrition in minipigs, and to characterize body composition, gut microbiota, malnutrition-related blood parameters, and histological and molecular skeletal muscle patterns. Methods Eleven Yucatan minipigs were subjected to two different diets: a standard control diet (ST) (n = 5) and a LC/LP diet (n = 6). LC/LP animals daily received 50% of an isocaloric low-protein diet (10.37 MJ/kg, 8.6% protein). Body composition was measured by computed tomography (CT-scan) before (T0) and after 8 weeks of diet (T8). Trapezius and biceps femoris muscles were sampled at the end of protocol to perform histological and molecular analyses. Gut microbiota composition were was also analyzed at T0 and T8 in fecal samples. Results Eight weeks of LC/LP diet significantly reduced body weight (−12.3 ± 9.5%, P = 0.03) and gut microbiota richness (i.e. number of observed species) (−10.4 ± 8.3%, P = 0.014) compared to baseline. After 8 weeks, LC/LP animals exhibited a significant reduction of retroperitoneal fat and skeletal muscle surface areas (P = 0.03 and P = 0.047, respectively), whereas these parameters remained unchanged in ST animals. These reductions were associated with lower muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in trapezius (P < 0.001) and biceps femoris (P = 0.003) in LC/LP animals compared to ST. LC/LP diet promoted an increase of AMP kinase phosphorylation in trapezius and biceps femoris (P = 0.05), but did not affect cytochrome c and COX IV protein content, markers of mitochondrial content. Gene and proteins involved in ubiquitin-proteasome system and apoptosis remained unchanged after 8 weeks of LC/LP diet both in trapezius and biceps femoris. Conclusion All these findings support that this experimental minipig model of severe malnutrition is valid to mimic pathophysiological changes occurring in human protein-energy marasmus malnutrition and muscle atrophy associated with malnutrition, as observed in patients with secondary sarcopenia.
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hal-03794138 , version 1 (25-11-2022)

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Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivatives - CC BY 4.0

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Laurence Lacaze, Sarah Rochdi, Annaëlle Couvert, Steve Touboulic, Sylvie Guerin, et al.. The Yucatan minipig model: A new preclinical model of malnutrition induced by a low-calorie/low-protein diet. Clinical Nutrition, 2022, 41 (10), pp.2077-2086. ⟨10.1016/j.clnu.2022.08.002⟩. ⟨hal-03794138⟩
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