The Epipeptide Biosynthesis Locus epeXEPAB Is Widely Distributed in Firmicutes and Triggers Intrinsic Cell Envelope Stress - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Advances in Microbial Physiology Year : 2021

The Epipeptide Biosynthesis Locus epeXEPAB Is Widely Distributed in Firmicutes and Triggers Intrinsic Cell Envelope Stress

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Abstract

The epeXEPAB= (formerlyyydFGHIJ) locus of Bacillus subtilis encodes a minimalistic biosynthetic pathway for a linear antimicrobial epipeptide, EpeX, which is ribosomally produced and post-translationally processed by the action of the radical-SAM epimerase, EpeE, and a membrane-anchored signal 2 peptide peptidase, EpeP. The ABC transporter EpeAB provides intrinsic immunity against self-produced EpeX, without conferring resistance against extrinsically added EpeX. EpeX specifically targets, and severely perturbs the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane, which leads to the induction of the Lia-dependent envelope stress response. Here, we provide new insights into the distribution, expression, and regulation of the minimalistic epeXEPAB locus of B. subtilis, as well as the biosynthesis and biological efficiency of the produced epipeptide EpeX*. A comprehensive comparative genomics study demonstrates that the epe-locus is restricted to but widely distributed within the phylum Firmicutes. The gene products of epeXEP are necessary and sufficient for the production of the mature antimicrobial peptide EpeX*. In B. subtilis, the epeXEPAB locus is transcribed from three different promoters, one upstream of epeX (PepeX) and two withinepeP(PepeA1 and PepeA2). While the latter two are mostly constitutive, PepeX shows a growth phase-dependent induction at the onset of stationary phase. We demonstrate that this regulation is the result of the antagonistic action of two global regulators: The transition state regulator AbrB keeps the epe locus shut off during exponential growth by direct binding. This tight repression is relieved by the master regulator of sporulation, Spo0A, which counteracts the AbrB-dependent repression of epeXEPAB expression during the transition to stationary phase. The net result of these three ­promoters is an expression pattern that ensures EpeAB-dependent autoimmunity prior to EpeX* production. In the absence of EpeAB, the general envelope stress response proteins LiaIH can compensate for the loss of specific autoimmunity by providing sufficient protection against the membrane-perturbating action of EpeX*. Hence, the transcriptional regulation ofepe expression and the resulting intrinsic induction of the two corresponding resistance functions, encoded by epeAB and liaIH, are well balanced to provide a need-based immunity against mature EpeX*.
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hal-03817729 , version 1 (17-10-2022)

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Attribution - CC BY 4.0

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Philipp F Popp, Lena Friebel, Alhosna Benjdia, Alain Guillot, Olivier Berteau, et al.. The Epipeptide Biosynthesis Locus epeXEPAB Is Widely Distributed in Firmicutes and Triggers Intrinsic Cell Envelope Stress. Advances in Microbial Physiology, 2021, 31 (3), pp.1-12. ⟨10.1159/000516750⟩. ⟨hal-03817729⟩
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