Nomenclatural issues concerning cultured yeasts and other fungi: why it is important to avoid unneeded name changes - INRAE - Institut national de recherche pour l’agriculture, l’alimentation et l’environnement Access content directly
Journal Articles IMA Fungus Year : 2021

Nomenclatural issues concerning cultured yeasts and other fungi: why it is important to avoid unneeded name changes

1 DSMZ - Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH / Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures
2 CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar
3 CAS - Chinese Academy of Sciences [Beijing]
4 UC Davis - University of California [Davis]
5 UNIPG - Università degli Studi di Perugia = University of Perugia
6 University of Ljubljana
7 MICALIS - MICrobiologie de l'ALImentation au Service de la Santé
8 Wadsworth Center
10 RSMAS - Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science
11 WI - Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute [Utrecht]
12 University of Wisconsin-Madison
13 MSU - Lomonosov Moscow State University
14 RAS - Russian Academy of Sciences [Moscow]
15 Bruker Daltonik GmbH
16 NKUA - National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
17 IPATEC - Instituto Andino Patagónico de Tecnologías Biológicas y Geoambientales [Bariloche]
18 UNCOMA - Universidad Nacional del Comahue [Neuquén]
19 The University of Sydney
20 The Westmead Institute for Medical Research
21 Westmead Hospital [Sydney]
22 Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences
23 PAN - Polska Akademia Nauk = Polish Academy of Sciences = Académie polonaise des sciences
24 UFMG - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais = Federal University of Minas Gerais [Belo Horizonte, Brazil]
25 UCIBIO - Unidade de Ciencias Biomoleculares Aplicadas
26 FCT NOVA - Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia = School of Science & Technology
27 University of Debrecen Egyetem [Debrecen]
28 DZIF - German Center for Infection Research - partner site Hannover-Braunschweig
29 Meiji Pharmaceutical University
30 National Museum of Nature and Science
31 Nara Institute of Science and Technology
32 TUAT - Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
33 Hebei University
34 IBED - Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics
Artur Alves
Feng-Yan Bai
Kyria Boundy-Mills
Neža Čadež
Vishnu Chaturvedi
Valérie Collin
  • Function : Author
Victoria Girard
  • Function : Author
Chris Todd Hittinger
Markus Kostrzewa
Xinzhan Liu
Thomas Maier
Takashi Sugita
Hiroshi Takagi


The unambiguous application of fungal names is important to communicate scientific findings. Names are critical for (clinical) diagnostics, legal compliance, and regulatory controls, such as biosafety, food security, quarantine regulations, and industrial applications. Consequently, the stability of the taxonomic system and the traceability of nomenclatural changes is crucial for a broad range of users and taxonomists. The unambiguous application of names is assured by the preservation of nomenclatural history and the physical organisms representing a name. Fungi are extremely diverse in terms of ecology, lifestyle, and methods of study. Predominantly unicellular fungi known as yeasts are usually investigated as living cultures. Methods to characterize yeasts include physiological (growth) tests and experiments to induce a sexual morph; both methods require viable cultures. Thus, the preservation and availability of viable reference cultures are important, and cultures representing reference material are cited in species descriptions. Historical surveys revealed drawbacks and inconsistencies between past practices and modern requirements as stated in the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (ICNafp). Improper typification of yeasts is a common problem, resulting in a large number invalid yeast species names. With this opinion letter, we address the problem that culturable microorganisms, notably some fungi and algae, require specific provisions under the ICNafp. We use yeasts as a prominent example of fungi known from cultures. But viable type material is important not only for yeasts, but also for other cultivable Fungi that are characterized by particular morphological structures (a specific type of spores), growth properties, and secondary metabolites. We summarize potential proposals which, in our opinion, will improve the stability of fungal names, in particular by protecting those names for which the reference material can be traced back to the original isolate.
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Dates and versions

hal-03818233 , version 1 (17-10-2022)





Andrey Yurkov, Artur Alves, Feng-Yan Bai, Kyria Boundy-Mills, Pietro Buzzini, et al.. Nomenclatural issues concerning cultured yeasts and other fungi: why it is important to avoid unneeded name changes. IMA Fungus, 2021, 12 (1), ⟨10.1186/s43008-021-00067-x⟩. ⟨hal-03818233⟩
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