Two decades of epidemiological surveillance of the pine wood nematode in France reveal its absence despite suitable conditions for its establishment - INRAE - Institut national de recherche pour l’agriculture, l’alimentation et l’environnement Access content directly
Journal Articles Annals of Forest Science Year : 2023

Two decades of epidemiological surveillance of the pine wood nematode in France reveal its absence despite suitable conditions for its establishment

Abstract

This study takes stock of the first 20 years (2000–2019) of monitoring the pine wood nematode (PWN) in metropolitan France. While PWN was never found in the wild during this period, it was reported in some wood-based commodities entering or circulating on French territory. This stresses the importance of remaining extremely vigilant, as the conditions found in France, especially weather conditions, could be particularly suitable for the pest’s establishment. Context The pine wood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus , responsible for pine wilt disease (PWD), is one of the most important forest tree pests worldwide. It is thus the focus of many monitoring programmes. In the European Union, for example, it is categorised as a priority quarantine pest, so each member state is obliged to monitor the PWN on its territory. Aims The first objective of this paper was to describe PWN monitoring in metropolitan France, namely how it is organised and whether it has led to the nematode’s detection. Secondly, we wished to investigate what the levels of PWD expression for host pines infected by B. xylophilus would be in France. Thirdly, we wanted to find out whether other Bursaphelenchus species had been found on French territory during these two decades of PWN monitoring. Methods We analysed data from samples collected in the framework of the monitoring programme between 2000 and 2019 to track the PWN in its host pines, its insect vector ( Monochamus spp.) and in wood-based commodities imported into or circulating in metropolitan France. We also generated risk maps of PWD expression based on an evapo-transpiration model using climate data for the period 2000–2019. Results This monitoring, which was regularly reinforced from 2000 to 2019, consisted of sampling and analysing around 18,000 wood samples and 66,000 insects over this period. Although the PWN was not detected in pine stands or within its insect vector, some wood-based commodities were found to be contaminated. Risk maps of PWD expression show that in the most recent years (2015–2019), the weather conditions in a large fraction of metropolitan France were suited to PWD expression, mostly with a delay (i.e., latency) between infection and observable wilt symptoms. PWN monitoring has also revealed the presence of other Bursaphelenchus species, most of which were discovered for the first time in metropolitan France and are described herein. Conclusion While metropolitan France is still free of the PWN, this study emphasises the need to remain cautious as the French territory appears particularly suitable for this pest’s establishment. Furthermore, our research has led us to propose some ideas on how to improve PWN monitoring.
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hal-04160801 , version 1 (12-07-2023)

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Nicolas Mariette, Hoël Hotte, Anne-Marie Chappé, Marie Grosdidier, Géraldine Anthoine, et al.. Two decades of epidemiological surveillance of the pine wood nematode in France reveal its absence despite suitable conditions for its establishment. Annals of Forest Science, 2023, 80 (1), pp.21. ⟨10.1186/s13595-023-01186-8⟩. ⟨hal-04160801⟩
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