Polyhexamethylene biguanide promotes adaptive crossresistance to gentamicin in Escherichia coli biofilms - INRAE - Institut national de recherche pour l’agriculture, l’alimentation et l’environnement Access content directly
Journal Articles Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology Year : 2023

Polyhexamethylene biguanide promotes adaptive crossresistance to gentamicin in Escherichia coli biofilms

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance is a critical public health issue that requires a thorough understanding of the factors that influence the selection and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Biocides, which are widely used in cleaning and disinfection procedures in a variety of settings, may contribute to this resistance by inducing similar defense mechanisms in bacteria against both biocides and antibiotics. However, the strategies used by bacteria to adapt and develop crossresistance remain poorly understood, particularly within biofilms-a widespread bacterial habitat that significantly influences bacterial tolerance and adaptive strategies. Using a combination of adaptive laboratory evolution experiments, genomic and RT-qPCR analyses, and biofilm structural characterization using confocal microscopy, we investigated in this study how Escherichia coli biofilms adapted after 28 days of exposure to three biocidal active substances and the effects on cross-resistance to antibiotics. Interestingly, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) exposure led to an increase of gentamicin resistance (GenR) phenotypes in biofilms formed by most of the seven E. coli strains tested. Nevertheless, most variants that emerged under biocidal conditions did not retain the GenR phenotype after removal of antimicrobial stress, suggesting a transient adaptation (adaptive resistance). The whole genome sequencing of variants with stable GenR phenotypes revealed recurrent mutations in genes associated with cellular respiration, including cytochrome oxidase (cydA, cyoC) and ATP synthase (atpG). RT-qPCR analysis revealed an induction of gene expression associated with biofilm matrix production (especially curli synthesis), stress responses, active and passive transport and cell respiration during PHMB exposure, providing insight into potential physiological responses associated with adaptive crossresistance. In addition, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) observations demonstrated a global effect of PHMB on biofilm architectures and compositions formed by most E. coli strains, with the appearance of dense cellular clusters after a 24h-exposure. In conclusion, our Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology frontiersin.org 01
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hal-04334478 , version 1 (11-12-2023)

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Raphaël Charron, Pierre Leme, Antoine Huguet, Ornella Minlong, Marine Boulanger, et al.. Polyhexamethylene biguanide promotes adaptive crossresistance to gentamicin in Escherichia coli biofilms. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 2023, 13 (1324991.), ⟨10.3389/fcimb.2023.1324991⟩. ⟨hal-04334478⟩
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