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Elargissement du spectre de résistance des plantes aux virus à ARN : utilisation de la plante modèle Arabidopsis thaliana

Abstract : Plants genetic resistances to pathogens is a founding topic in genetics, as well as in crop breeding, in order to limit economical losses caused by diseases. The use of natural resistancesisolated in wild accessions and introgressed into commercial varieties is a common strategy in plant breeding. However, such resistances are not available for all species. The goal of my thesis project was to make up for that lack by identifying and developing new sources of resistance to a major group of plant pathogens, viruses from the Potyvirus family, by two major research axes: - The identification of new plant susceptibility factors to viruses: To realize its viral cycle, viruses hijack several host factors. Those factors can be made into sources of resistance upon being suppressed or modified. I carried out a screening of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutagenized population to search for mutants with decreased viral accumulation, most likely affected in new susceptibility factors. My thesis work allowed to isolate several candidates that remain to be characterized. - New ways of exploiting natural resistances: Point mutations in translation initiation factor eIF4E confer potyvirus resistance in several species, notably in pea. My work aimed at mimicking the genetic variability found in pea to the A.thaliana eIF4E gene to generate resistance. By introducing a synthetic allele carrying the pea resistance mutations into A.thaliana, I made the proof of concept that it was possible to i) transfer resistance to viruses from one species to another, ii) without affecting the eIF4E function in cells, in order to avoid growth or developmental defects and iii) enlarge considerably plant resistance spectrum against viruses. I next showed that this trans-species transfer of resistance signature could be engineered by gene editing technologies paving the way for application to cultivated species.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/tel-02785971
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 4, 2020 - 11:24:21 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, December 3, 2020 - 4:46:04 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-02785971, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 452815

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Anna Bastet. Elargissement du spectre de résistance des plantes aux virus à ARN : utilisation de la plante modèle Arabidopsis thaliana. Biologie végétale. 2018. Français. ⟨tel-02785971⟩

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