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Diversité structurale des locus de résistance à Phytophthora infestans chez la pomme de terre et synténie chez les Solanacées

Abstract : Polygenic resistances to plant pathogens, controlled by QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci), appear as a durable alternative to monogenic resistances, which are often quickly overcome by new virulences. To facilitate the use of polygenic resistances in plant breeding and in an attempt to better understand their potential durability, the exploration of the host diversity is necessary to inventory the resistance sources and describe the involved loci in the most comprehensive way, according to their genomic distribution and their allelic variability. The aim of this work was to clarify the structural organization of resistance loci to Phytophthora infestans on the potato genome and to make more precise their syntenic relationships with the QTLs of two other Solanaceae. Phytophthora are oomycetes responsible for late blight, and provoke tremendous damages in Solanaceae crops. Many loci of quantitative and qualitative resistances have been described, mostly in potato, but also in tomato and pepper. Three kinds of QTL analyses were used. The analyses in bi-parental independent populations and in connected multi-populations using a factorial mating design allowed the identification of new resistance QTLs in three potato-related wild species, S. sparsipilum, S. spegazzinii and S. berthaultii, with quantitative tests on stems and foliage. A meta-analysis of all available QTL mapping data coming from the present work and from literature highlighted QTL congruency between the different studies, and made colocations clearer between QTLs and major genes of resistance, and with maturity QTLs. Candidate genes of the obtained meta-QTLs have been proposed. From a more prospective point of view, in order to make the syntenic relationships between the three Solanaceae more precise in a region of QTL colinearity, an inter-specific meta-analysis was achieved. Hypotheses were proposed about the molecular nature of the genes underlying the QTLs of the different species, their possible origins and evolution during speciation.
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Sarah Danan. Diversité structurale des locus de résistance à Phytophthora infestans chez la pomme de terre et synténie chez les Solanacées. Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. Institut National d'Etudes Supérieures Agronomiques de Montpellier, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-02823681⟩

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