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Effect of feeding strategy on environmental impacts of pig fattening in different contexts of production: evaluation through life cycle assessment

Abstract : Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in many studies to evaluate the effect of feeding strategy on the environmental impact of pig production. However, because most studies have been conducted in European conditions, the question of possible interactions with the context of production is still under debate. The objective of this study was to evaluate these effects in 2 contrasted geographic contexts of production, South America (Brazil) and Europe (France). The LCA considered the process of pig fattening, including production and transport of feed ingredients and feed, raising of fattening pigs, and manure storage, transport, and spreading. Impacts were calculated at the farm gate, and the functional unit considered was 1 kg of BW gain over the fattening period. The performances of pigs were simulated for each scenario using the InraPorc population model (2,000 pigs per scenario considering between-animal variability). The LCA calculations were performed for each pig according to its own performance and excretion, and the results were subjected to variance analysis. The results indicate that for some impacts there are clear interactions between the effects of the feeding program, the origin of soybean, and the location of production. For climate change, interest in phase feeding and incorporation of crystalline AA (CAA) is limited and even counterproductive in Brazil with soybeans from the South (without deforestation), whereas they appear to be efficient strategies with soybeans from the Center West (with deforestation), especially in France. Rather similar effects, as those for climate change, were observed for cumulative energy demand. Conversely, potential eutrophication and acidification impacts were reduced by phase feeding and CAA addition in a rather similar way in all situations. Individual daily feeding, the only strategy that took into account between-animal variability, was the most effective approach for reducing the life cycle impact of pig fattening in all situations, whereas the potential of phase feeding programs and CAA was dependent on soybean origin and the geographical context of pig production, in contrast with previous results.
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Alessandra Monteiro, Florence Garcia-Launay, Ludovic Brossard, Aurélie Wilfart, Jean-Yves Dourmad. Effect of feeding strategy on environmental impacts of pig fattening in different contexts of production: evaluation through life cycle assessment. Journal of Animal Science, American Society of Animal Science, 2016, 94 (11), pp.4832-4847. ⟨10.2527/jas.2016-0529⟩. ⟨hal-02640612⟩



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