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Breed and dietary linseed affect gene expression of enzymes and transcription factors involved in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesis in longissimus thoracis muscle of bulls

Abstract : N-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA are known to be beneficial for human development and health. These properties explain the increasing interest in promoting n-3 LC PUFA deposition in bovine muscles, leading to healthier meats. In this context, this study aimed to identify possible limiting steps in the bioconversion of 18: 3n-3 into n-3 LC PUFA in the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of 36 Aberdeen Angus, Limousin, and Blond d'Aquitaine bulls (n = 12 per breed) that were fed, for the 105-d finishing period, either a concentrate-based diet (25% molasses straw to 75% concentrate, on a raw basis; CON) or the same CON diet supplemented with extruded linseed (44.5 g lipid/kg diet DM) mixed into the concentrate (LINS). The fatty acid (FA) composition of the LT muscle was determined by GLC, and the mRNA abundances for enzymes and transcription factors involved in n-3 LC PUFA synthesis were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The total lipid concentration in the LT muscle was approximately 2.4-fold greater (P < 0.001) in Angus bulls than in the other breeds and composed of the greatest n-3 PUFA content (P < 0.001) including 18:3n-3 (P < 0.001) and n-3 LC PUFA (P < 0.02), primarily 20:5n-3 (P < 0.007) and 22: 5n-3 (P < 0.04). These data were associated with a lesser gene expression (P < 0.02) of 2 enzymes [acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOXl) and L-bifunctional protein (L-PBE)] and 2 transcription factors [liver X receptors (LXR) alpha and beta] in the LT muscle of Angus bulls compared with gene expression in Limousin bulls. Moreover, the mRNA of elongase 5 was only present in trace amounts in the LT muscle of the 3 breeds. The addition of linseed to the diet resulted in greater deposition of 18: 3n-3 (P < 0.001) in the LT muscles of the 3 breeds, without any major changes (P > 0.34) in the n-3 LC PUFA content. Dietary linseed stimulated (P < 0.04) the gene expression of all enzymes and transcription factors involved in n-3 LC PUFA synthesis except elongases 2 and 5 (P > 0.19), the expression of which remained weak and was not inducible. These results reveal a limited capacity for n-3 LC PUFA synthesis from 18:4n-3 (substrate of elongase 5) in the LT muscles of Blond d'Aquitaine, Limousin, and Angus bulls. Therefore, further investigations on the cellular regulation of elongase gene expression are needed to identify the physiological or nutritional factors that efficiently stimulate elongase expression in beef cattle.
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Submitted on : Thursday, May 28, 2020 - 5:47:38 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, September 21, 2021 - 11:58:02 AM

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Dominique Gruffat, Maya Cherfaoui, Muriel Bonnet, Agnès Thomas, Dominique Bauchart, et al.. Breed and dietary linseed affect gene expression of enzymes and transcription factors involved in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesis in longissimus thoracis muscle of bulls. Journal of Animal Science, American Society of Animal Science, 2013, 91 (7), pp.3059-3069. ⟨10.2527/jas2012-6112⟩. ⟨hal-02641808⟩

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