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Loading of lutein in egg-sphingomyelin vesicles as lipid carriers: Thermotropic phase behaviour, structure of sphingosome membranes and lutein crystals

Abstract : Lutein is a xanthophyll carotenoid provided exclusively by the diet, that has protective functions and beneficial effects on human health. Supplementation in lutein is necessary to reach the recommended daily dietary intake. However, the introduction of lutein into foods and beverages is a real challenge since this lipophilic nutrient has a poor aqueous solubility and a low bioavailability. In this study, we investigated the capacity of egg-sphingomyelin (ESM) vesicles called sphingosomes to solubilise lutein into the bilayers. The thermal and structural properties of ESM bilayers were examined in presence of various amounts of lutein by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature-controlled X-ray diffraction (XRD), the structures of sphingosomes and lutein crystals were observed by microscopic techniques. ESM bilayers were in the fluid L α phase above the phase transition temperature T m = 39.6 • C and in the lamellar ripple P β ′ phase below T m where ESM sphingo-somes exhibited ondulations and were facetted. Lutein molecules were successfully incorporated into the ESM bilayers where they induced a structural disorganisation. For ESM/lutein 90/10 %mol (91.8/8.2 %wt; 89 mg lutein / g ESM), lutein partitioning occured with the formation of lutein crystals in the aqueous phase together with lutein-loaded ESM vesicles. This study highlighted the capacity of new lipid carriers such as egg-sphingosomes to solubilise lutein and opens perspectives for the formulation of effective lutein-fortified func-tionnal foods and beverages providing health benefits.
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Christelle Lopez, Cristelle Mériadec, Elisabeth David-Briand, Aurélien Dupont, Thomas Bizien, et al.. Loading of lutein in egg-sphingomyelin vesicles as lipid carriers: Thermotropic phase behaviour, structure of sphingosome membranes and lutein crystals. Food Research International, Elsevier, 2020, 138, Part A, pp.109770. ⟨10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109770⟩. ⟨hal-02969002⟩

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