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Impact and consequences of intensive chemotherapy on intestinal barrier and microbiota in acute myeloid leukemia: the role of mucosal strengthening

Abstract : Induction chemotherapy (7 + 3 regimen) remains the gold standard for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but is responsible for gut damage leading to several complications such as bloodstream infection (BSI). We aimed to investigate the impact of induction chemotherapy on the intestinal barrier of patients with AML and in wild-type mice. Next, we assessed the potential benefit of strengthening the mucosal barrier in transgenic mice releasing a recombinant protein able to reinforce the mucus layer (Tg222). In patients, we observed a decrease of plasma citrulline, which is a marker of the functional enterocyte mass, of short-chain fatty acids and of fecal bacterial load, except forEscherichia coliandEnterococcusspp., which became dominant. Both the alpha and beta-diversities of fecal microbiota decreased. In wild-type mice, citrulline levels decreased under chemotherapy along with an increase ofE. coliandEnterococcusspp load associated with concomitant histologic impairment. By comparison with wild-type mice, Tg222 mice, 3 days after completing chemotherapy, had higher citrulline levels, a faster healing epithelium, and preserved alpha-diversity of their intestinal microbiota. This was associated with reduced bacterial translocations. Our results highlight the intestinal damage and the dysbiosis induced by the 7 + 3 regimen. As a proof of concept, our transgenic model suggests that strengthening the intestinal barrier is a promising approach to limit BSI and improve AML patients' outcome.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-03339876
Contributor : Roselyne Tâche <>
Submitted on : Thursday, September 9, 2021 - 5:04:18 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, September 11, 2021 - 3:39:09 AM

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Thomas Hueso, Kenneth Ekpe, Camille Mayeur, Anna Gatse, Marie Joncquel-Chevallier Curt, et al.. Impact and consequences of intensive chemotherapy on intestinal barrier and microbiota in acute myeloid leukemia: the role of mucosal strengthening. Gut microbes, Taylor & Francis, 2020, 12 (1), pp.1800897. ⟨10.1080/19490976.2020.1800897⟩. ⟨hal-03339876⟩

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