Nutrient digestibility and energy utilization of Eco-friendly pig diet - INRAE - Institut national de recherche pour l’agriculture, l’alimentation et l’environnement Access content directly
Conference Poster Year : 2022

Nutrient digestibility and energy utilization of Eco-friendly pig diet


Introduction The traditional approach to feed formulation in pig production is only based on minimal cost to reach nutrient requirements, and makes no consideration of environmental factors. To reduce the overall impacts of pig production, new methods have been proposed that incorporate the environmental impacts of feed ingredients in the feed formulation process of eco-friendly diets. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of eco-friendly pig diet on nitrogen and energy balances, on the components of heat production and animal performance in growing pigs. Material and methods We compared two different diets: a control diet in accordance with practices in commercial farms (Control-diet, including 70% cereals (corn, wheat, triticale, barley), 10% peas, 12% oilmeals, 5% wheat middlings and 3% additives) and a eco-diet formulated with the method developed by Garcia-Launay et al. (2018; Eco-diet, including 46% cereals (corn, wheat), 20% peas, 18% wheat middlings, 7% rapeseed meal, 5% faba beans, 1.5% rapeseed oil and 2.5% additives). Experimental diets were balanced on their net energy content (9.82 MJ/kg) and on their standardized ileal digestible amino acids. A total of 20 Pietrain x (Large White x Landrace) entire males (mean BW: 62.5 kg) was used in this study (n=2 per experimental diet per replicate, 5 successive replicates). Pigs were fed at 180g of feed per kg of BW0.60 one of the two experimental diets (10 pigs per diet). Animals were housed individually in metabolism cages equipped for feed and water intake measurement, separated collection of feces and urine and mounted on force sensors to measure the physical activity of the animal. All animals were adapted to experimental conditions, diets, and metabolism cages during 14 days. After the adaptation period, pigs were housed in climate respiration chambers (two pigs in their individual cage per chamber) for 6 d to measure feed and nutrient intake, digestibility of nutrients, energy and nitrogen balance, and fasting heat production (FHP) on the 7th day. Nitrogen losses due to NH3 evaporation in the chamber, were recovered in condensed water and outgoing air. Gas concentrations, physical characteristics of gas in the chamber (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure) and the signals of the force sensors were measured continuously, averaged over 10-s intervals and recorded for further calculations of the heat production (HP) components. Performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen and energy balance and HP components were subjected to an analysis of variance that tested the effects of replicate and experimental diet with SAS. Results were considered significant for P-values lower than 0.05. Results and Discussion We did not observe any significant effect of the dietary treatment on growth performance (feed intake, daily gain, water consumption). However, the daily gain was slightly lower in the Eco-diet group (922g/d) than in the Control-diet group (1037g/d) during the collection period (6 d). Digestibility coefficients of DM (88.3% vs 84.5%), OM (88.0% vs 83.8%), N (86.3% vs 80.4%) and GE (87.2% vs 83.3%) were significantly higher in the Control-diet group in comparison with the Eco-diet group (P<0.05). Although N (50.7g/d vs 49.9g/d) and E (2732kJ/kg BW0.6/d vs 2761kJ/kg BW0.6/d) intake being similar between the two experimental groups, the N (6.9g/d vs 9.8g/d) and E (347kJ/kg BW0.6/d vs 464kJ/kg BW0.6/d) excretion in feces were higher with the Eco-diet in comparison with the Control-diet (P<0.05). These higher excretions for the Eco-Diet result from its lower nutrient digestibility because of dietary fibers. The retained N (30.2g/d vs 28g/d) tended to decrease with the Eco-diet, that may be due to an overestimation of its amino acid content. Concerning the different components of HP, we observed similar values between the two experimental groups for the FHP (824kJ/kg BW0.6/d vs 822 kJ/kg BW0.6/d) and the AHP (183kJ/kg BW0.6/d vs 181kJ/kg BW0.6/d). The TEF (379kJ/kg BW0.6/d vs 338kJ/kg BW0.6/d) was significantly higher in the Control-diet group in comparison with the Eco-diet group (P<0.05). As a result, the total HP (1386kJ/kg BW0.6/d vs 1342kJ/kg BW0.6/d) was significantly higher in the Control-diet group too (P<0.05). The retained energy (929 kJ/kg BW0.6/d vs 885 kJ/kg BW0.6/d) was similar between the two experimental group. However, we observed a slightly lower retained energy as protein (352 kJ/kg BW0.6/d vs 327 kJ/kg BW0.6/d) in the Eco-diet group (P=0.06) which resulted in the slightly lower daily gain in this experimental group. The lower protein deposition is also associated with a lower heat increment, that explains the increase in HP. Conclusion and implications Using feed ingredients with lower environmental impacts, such as locally produced protein or high-protein agricultural co-products seems to be an efficient way to reduce impacts of pig production. However, the nutritional value of these ecofriendly ingredients may be underestimate, in particular the real value of the digestible amino acids. We need to better estimate and take into account the real digestibility of eco-friendly diet in the MO formulation method to be sure to decrease the environmental impact of production without consequences on animal performance. Acknowledgements The authors thank Cécile Perrier, Gwenola Le Roy and Charlène Evain for laboratory analyses, and Vincent Piedvache and Fabien Guerin, from UE3P INRAE 35590 Saint Gilles France ( for animal care. Financial support statement None References Garcia-Launay F, Dusart L, Espagnol S, Laisse-Redoux S, Gaudré D, Méda B, Wilfart A 2018. Multiobjective formulation is an effective method to reduce environmental impacts of livestock feeds. Br J Nutr. 120(11), 1298-1309.

Dates and versions

hal-03878107 , version 1 (29-11-2022)



Francine de Quelen, Florence Garcia-Launay, Jean-Yves Dourmad, Etienne Labussière. Nutrient digestibility and energy utilization of Eco-friendly pig diet. 7. EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition (Isep), Sep 2022, Granada, Spain. Elsevier, Animal - Science Proceedings, 13 (3), pp.383-384, 2022, Proceedings of the 7th EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition (ISEP 2022). ⟨10.1016/j.anscip.2022.07.123⟩. ⟨hal-03878107⟩


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