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Extracellular vesicles produced by the probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 129 mitigate inflammation by modulating the NF-κB pathway

Abstract : Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanometric spherical structures involved in intercellular communication, whose production is considered to be a widespread phenomenon in living organisms. Bacterial EVs are associated with several processes that include survival, competition, pathogenesis, and immunomodulation. Among probiotic Gram-positive bacteria, some Propionibacterium freudenreichii strains exhibit antiinflammatory activity, notably via surface proteins such as the surface-layer protein B (SlpB). We have hypothesized that, in addition to surface exposure and secretion of proteins, P. freudenreichii may produce EVs and thus export immunomodulatory proteins to interact with the host. In order to demonstrate their production in this species, EVs were purified from cell-free culture supernatants of the probiotic strain P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 129, and their physicochemical characterization, using transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), revealed shapes and sizes typical of EVs. Proteomic characterization showed that EVs contain a broad range of proteins, including immunomodulatory proteins such as SlpB. In silico protein-protein interaction predictions indicated that EV proteins could interact with host proteins, including the immunomodulatory transcription factor NF-kB. This potential interaction has a functional significance because EVs modulate inflammatory responses, as shown by IL-8 release and NF-kB activity, in HT-29 human intestinal epithelial cells. Indeed, EVs displayed an anti-inflammatory effect by modulating the NF-kB pathway; this was dependent on their concentration and on the proinflammatory inducer (LPSspecific). Moreover, while this anti-inflammatory effect partly depended on SlpB, it was not abolished by EV surface proteolysis, suggesting possible intracellular sites of action for EVs. This is the first report on identification of P. freudenreichii-derived EVs, alongside their physicochemical, biochemical and functional characterization. This study has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms associated with the probiotic activity of P. freudenreichii and identified opportunities to employ bacterial-derived EVs for the development of bioactive products with therapeutic effects.
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Vinicius de Rezende Rodovalho, Brenda Silva Rosa da Luz, Houem Rabah, Fillipe Luiz Rosa Do Carmo, Edson L Folador, et al.. Extracellular vesicles produced by the probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 129 mitigate inflammation by modulating the NF-κB pathway. Frontiers in Microbiology, Frontiers Media, 2020, 11, ⟨10.3389/fmicb.2020.01544⟩. ⟨hal-02885846⟩

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