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Environmental Conditions Modulate the Protein Content and Immunomodulatory Activity of Extracellular Vesicles Produced by the Probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii

Abstract : Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a probiotic Gram-positive bacterium with promising immunomodulatory properties. It modulates regulatory cytokines and mitigates the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. These properties were initially attributed to specific bacterial surface proteins. Recently, we showed that extracellular vesicles (EVs) produced by P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA129 mimic the immunomodulatory features of parent cells in vitro (i.e., modulating NF-κB transcription factor activity and interleukin-8 release), which underlies the role of EVs as mediators of the probiotic effects of the bacterium. The modulation of EV properties, and particularly of those with potential therapeutic applications, such as the EVs produced by the probiotic P. freudenreichii, is one of the challenges in the field to achieve efficient yields with the desired optimal functionality. Here, we evaluated whether the culture medium in which the bacteria are grown could be used as a lever to modulate the protein content and, hence, the properties of P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA129 EVs. The physical, biochemical, and functional properties of EVs produced from cells cultivated on laboratory yeast extract lactate (YEL) medium and cow milk ultrafiltrate (UF) medium were compared. UF-derived EVs were more abundant and smaller in diameter, and they displayed more intense anti-inflammatory activity than YEL-derived EVs. Furthermore, the growth media modulated EV content in terms of both the identities and abundances of their protein cargos, suggesting different patterns of interaction with the host. Proteins involved in amino acid metabolism and central carbon metabolism were modulated, as were the key surface proteins mediating host-propionibacterium interactions. IMPORTANCE Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cellular membrane-derived nanosized particles that are produced by most cells in all three kingdoms of life. They play a pivotal role in cell-cell communication through their ability to transport bioactive molecules from donor to recipient cells. Bacterial EVs are important factors in hostmicrobe interactions. Recently, we have shown that EVs produced by the probiotic P. freudenreichii exhibited immunomodulatory properties. We evaluate here the impact of environmental conditions, notably culture media, on P. freudenreichii EV production and function. We show that EVs display considerable differences in protein cargo and immunomodulation depending on the culture medium used. This work offers new perspectives for the development of probiotic EV-based molecular delivery systems and reinforces the optimization of growth conditions as a tool to modulate the potential therapeutic applications of EVs.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-03137714
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 10, 2021 - 3:47:09 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, March 30, 2021 - 3:23:58 PM

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Vinícius Rodovalho, Brenda da Luz, Aurélie Nicolas, Fillipe Luiz Rosa Do Carmo, Vasco de Carvalho Azevedo, et al.. Environmental Conditions Modulate the Protein Content and Immunomodulatory Activity of Extracellular Vesicles Produced by the Probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, American Society for Microbiology, 2021, 87 (4), ⟨10.1128/AEM.02263-20⟩. ⟨hal-03137714⟩

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